ART SMITHfN 1
Hate Qfalbgc of Agriculture
Strata, x. %
The original of this book is in
the Cornell University Library.
There are no known copyright restrictions in
the United States on the use of the text.
Practical Forging and
THOMAS F. GOOGERTY
The Bruce Publishing Company
The Bruce Publishing Company
THE present demand for school instruction in the
industrial arts has made it necessary for the teach-
ers of industries to have that knowledge of materials
and methods which can only result from long and care-
ful experience with the materials of industry.
This book is the result of a life of such experience
by a man who is now recognized as a master craftsman
in wrought metal.
The author's work in wrought iron is comparable
in design and finish to the best work that has been pro-
duced in that material.
Some pieces of the best German work are before
me as I make this statement and tho more intricate
they are no better in execution and far less suitable to
the material in design than the pieces illustrated in this
book which I have seen in process of execution and in
the finished form.
The author has moreover been a teacher of wrought
metal work for many years.
This experience is reflected in the sequence of dif-
ficulty presented by the exercises and the clear, simple
statement of the text.
With such clear and exact statement and with such
profuse illustration it is evident that the metal worker
can gather much of the author's long experience from
this book and take many a short cut to success in an
accomplishment to which there can be no royal road.
But the effectiveness of an applied art is measured
best by its expression of purpose within the limitations
of the material used.
4 INTRODUCTION— Continued
The artistic success of this book lies in the evident
fact that the work represented appears "Hand wrought
and fashioned to beauty and use."
I predict for it increasing usefulness in setting
right the practice of forging in school shops and as an
inspiration to teachers, craftsmen and tradesmen.
EDWARD J. LAKE.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER I. Page
The Forge — Forge Tools — The Anvil — Anvil Tools — Making the Fire —
Cleaning the Fire — Welding — Flux and Its Uses 7
Electric Welding — Oxy-acetylene Gas Welding — The Fagot Weld — The
Separate Heat Weld — Scarfing — Upsetting — Making the Weld — Lap
Welding without Scarfing — Jump Welding — Butt Weld — Split
Welding — Corner Weld— T-Weld 22
Corner Weld — Brazing — Fagot Weld — Fuming a Loose Eye — Hammock
Hook — Finishing Wrought Iron — S-Link — Welded Eye Pin 36
Staples — Open Links — Welded Chain Lines — Punching — A Grab Hook 46
Bolts — Cupping Tool — Gate Hook— Hay Hook — Welded Ring— Expan-
sion of Heated Iron 54
Making Tongs — Pig Iron — Puddling — The Bessemer Process — The Open
Hearth Process — Crucible Steel — The Cementation Process —
Making a Flat Cold Chisel — Spring Tempering — Welding Steel — Case
Hardening — Coloring Steel — Annealing — Making a Scratch Awl —
Making a Center Punch — Making a Hand Punch — High Speed
Steel — Annealing High Speed Steel 70
Wrought Iron Work — Making a Wrought Iron Leaf — Making a Volute
Scroll— Grilles 83
Twisting — Braiding — Making a Fire Shovel 93
Making a Door Latch — Making a Hinge — Making a Candle Stick 99
Making a Drawer Pull — Chasing — Making a Door Knocker — Repousse —
Perforated Decoration 107
Making a Hat and Coat Hook — A Fuller — Jump Welding — Making a
Wall Hook 117
Making a Toasting Fork— Inlaying 124
Making a Lantern — Making a Wall Lamp 130
Making a Portable Lamp 139
The Forge — Forge Tools — The Anvil — Anvil' Tools — Making the
Fire — Cleaning the Fire — Welding — Flux and Its Uses.
ONE of the most essential things in the school forge
shop is a good forge and fire; half the work is
then mastered. A few years ago nearly all of the small
commercial shops running from one to six or more fires
were equipped with brick or iron forges. The blast was
furnished either with a bellows or fan which had to be
turned by hand. This method was a great drawback,
which resulted in much loss of time. It was impossible
to do much work without the aid of a helper. Work
that required two men in those days is being done now
by one. Modern invention has played an important
part in simplifying the labors of the workers in iron and
steel. At the present time there are various kinds of
forges in use that lessen the work of the smith. The
most successful factories are now equipped with modern
forges and appliances in order that they may be able
to do work quickly.
In our manual training schools, where the pupils
have such short periods in which to do work, it is neces-
sary that the shops be equipped with modern tools so
that they can produce work quickly. This will give the
individual pupil more practice in a shorter length of
time, which simply means more knowledge. Our
schools should not be hampered by using forges that have
been out-of-date for years.
The best forge for manual training and trade
schools is the down draft with power driven fans, thus
8 PRACTICAL FORGING
eliminating all pipes overhead and doing away with the
dust and dirt. A boy, working at this kind of a forge,
can use both hands in the handling of the work being
heated in the fire; this is a great advantage over the
Fig. 1. A Typical School Forge.
old way of turning a crank. Another good feature of
the mechanical draft forge is that it teaches a boy early
how to avoid over-heating or burning his iron. This is
the first thing one must learn in working at forging,
as one who cannot heat the metal properly cannot work
it. One must become acquainted with the material,
and the burning heat must be understood.
THE FORGE 9
Figure 1 shows an illustration of a down draft :
forge suitable for schools; it is made of cast iron. A
pressure fan furnishes the blast for the fire and an ex-
haust fan takes away the gas and smoke thru an opening
at the bottom of the hood, and thru a large pipe which
continues under the floor and out thru a flue. The hood
Fig. 2. Fire Tools.
represented at A, can be moved backward and forward
to catch the smoke. The hood is moved with a crank
and worm gear as shown at B. The hearth is shown at
C; a hole in the center is called the tuyere. This is
where the fire is built and is the outlet for the wind.
The amount of air needed for the fire is regulated by a
valve that is moved with a rod shown at D. The coal
box is always at the right hand of any forge and is shown
at E. The water box is represented at F. At G is
shown the pressure pipe and at H the exhaust pipe.
Notice the large opening under the forge at I. Thru
this opening any nut or screw under the tuyere can be
tightened with ease. Notice the slide-rod at J. This
rod, when pulled, dumps the cinders out of the tuyere,
and a bucket may be set under the hearth to catch them.
10 PRACTICAL FORGING
•In school shops these forges are generally set in pairs in
order to save room. Figure 2 shows three fire-tools
needed for the forge fire. These tools consist of a poker
made from f-inch round stock, 26 inches long with a
loose eye turned on one end for a handle ; a shovel with a
flat blade 4 by 6 by 1-16 inches with a handle riveted to
the blade, and a tool called a scraper. This scraper is
Fig. 3. Anvil.
made from the same stock as the poker and is made with
an eye at one end and a flat hook at the other. It is
used to scrape the coal and coke onto the fire, and to
move pieces of coke or coal, so that the iron may be seen
The anvil should be of wrought iron with a steel
face, weighing about 125 pounds. This is large enough
for any work being done in manual training schools.
In the school shop the anvils should all be of the same
size and weight so that any tool used with them will
fit into any square hole. In factories where anvils are
made, they are forged from wrought iron or soft steel,
with a carbon steel face welded on; some are cast steel
thruout and others are cast iron with a steel face. The
face is generally three-quarters inch thick, and is hardened
ARRANGEMENT OF FORGE AND ANVIL
-iQi *£t K-
'"3 ■J-'TLytfre 1
to resist heavy blows from the hammer and sledge.
(See drawing Figure 3 of anvil.) The anvil should be
fastened with iron straps, on a 10 by 10-inch block,
set into the ground about 3J feet. From the top of the
anvil to the floor should measure 26 inches. The
proper place to set the anvil in relation to the forge is
shown in the drawing, Figure 4. The smith should stand
between the forge and the anvil, with the horn of the
anvil at his left when facing it. The anvil edge farthest
from the smith is called the outer edge and the one
nearest the smith is called the inner edge.
Pein or Ball
Fig. 5. Hammer.
Fig. 9. Punch.
Fig. 6. Sledge.
Fig. 7. Hardie.
Fig. 8. Hand Punch.
Fig. 10. Center Punch.
GENERAL FORGE TOOLS 13
Every anvil should have two ball hammers weighing
about 1| and 2 lbs. each. (See drawing of hammer,
Figure 5.) The hammers should be numbered cor-
responding with a number on the anvil. All the hammers
should be kept in a rack when not in use. When the
pupils come into the shop to work, they should be
assigned to a certain forge and held responsible for the
care of tools. A ten-pound sledge hammer should also
be included, perhaps one for every two forges; the
handle should be 26 inches long. (See Figure 6.)
A piece of tool steel fitted into the square hole of
the anvil and sharpened at the top, is called a hardie.
It is used in cutting iron. A piece of iron is set on the
sharpened edge of the hardie and struck with the ham-
mer. The sharpened edge of the hardie cuts into the
iron, and in this manner it is cut deep enough so that it
may be broken. (See drawing of hardie, Figure 7.)
If a piece of steel is pointed on one end, it can be
hammered thru a flat piece of iron. This is one method
of punching holes in iron; a steel punch so made is called
a hand punch. Ordinarily hand punches are made out
of |-inch to f-inch hexagonal tool-steel bars about
eleven inches long. (See drawing Figure 8.) For heavy
punching, a short, thick punch with a hole thru it,
(called the eye) to receive a wooden handle, is used.
This kind of punch is struck on with a sledge hammer.
(See drawing Figure 9.)
A center punch is used to make depressions in
metal so that a drill may be started in a given place.
It is used also to mark places or distances on the surface
of metal when the metal is to be bent at a certain place.
Center punches are made from hexagonal tool steel
about 4 by 5-inch, drawn to a point and ground to a
short angle. (See Figure 10.)
Fig. '11. Flat Tongs.
Hot Chisel. Fig. 12. Cold Chisel.
Fig. 14. Set Hammer.
Fig. 13. Flatter.
GENERAL ANVIL TOOLS 15
In heating and handling short pieces of stock,
tongs are used (see Figure 11) which are made from
Swedish iron or mild steel; they are made in various
sizes and shapes according to use. They are called
pick-ups, flat, round-nose, and bolt tongs according to
the shape of the lips. Tongs should always be made
to fit the piece being forged. One cannot hold a piece of
iron properly with tongs that do not fit the piece. They
may be heated and fitted to the stock when occasion
demands. One important reason why tongs should
fit the piece being hammered, is that when turning and
striking the piece there is danger of the piece being
knocked out of the tongs in a whirling motion and the
flying piece of hot iron is liable to strike someone; this
danger must be closely watched. Tongs should not be
heated red hot and cooled in water; this destroys them.
Hot and cold chisels are used in cutting stock.
The blade of the hot chisel is made very thin, while the
cold chisel is made blunt to stand the heavy strain in
cutting. They are generally made with a hole thru
them, called the eye, to receive a wooden handle. These
chisels are struck on with a sledge hammer. (See
Iron and steel are sometimes smoothed with a tool
called a flatter. This tool is struck on with a sledge,
and should not be used to stretch iron. Its purpose
is only to give the work a smooth finish. Figure 13
shows a flatter, and Figure 14 a set-hammer. The
set-hammer is always used to smooth and draw stock.
All of these tools are made from tool-steel.
A heading tool is made from a flat piece of soft
steel with a hole in one end. Sometimes a carbon steel
face is welded on. The heading tool is used mostly
in heading bolts. Heading tools are made with different
sized holes. (See Figure 15.)
Swages and fullers are used to smooth and form
iron into various shapes. The swages generally have •
half round depressions in them. They are made in
Fig. 15. Heading Tool.
pairs called top and frottom swage. The bottom one
fits the square hole of the anvil ; the top one has a hole
for a wooden handle. (See drawing Figure 16.) The
fullers are also made in pairs called top and bottom
fullers. They are used to make depressions in metal.
(See drawing Figure 17.) When referring to swages,
fullers, and other tools of this character, blacksmiths
Fig. 16. Top and Bottom Swages.
speak of anvil tools. Special anvil tools are used in
doing various kinds of forging, and are made when
needed. The anvil tools should be kept in a tool rack
next to the anvil. These tools should be made from
tool-steel of about 75-point carbon, or they may be
GENERAL ANVIL TOOLS
purchased from a dealer. Some tools, such as swages,
that do not require continuous service, are made of soft
The anvil tool should have a buggy-spoke for a
handle. The handle should stick thru the eye of the
hole about one inch and should never be wedged. If the
handle is wedged it is more liable to be broken when the
tool is struck a glancing blow with the sledge hammer.
This is very often the case. The reason the spoke
should stick thru the tool is that if it should begin to
work off the handle when struck with the sledge ham-
mer, the movement can be seen.
Fig. 17. Top and Bottom Fullers.
Figure 18 shows a wrought vise suitable for school
work. A cast iron machinists' vise should not be used
excepting, perhaps, for bench work. Figure 19 shows
a cast-iron swage block with various sized holes, and
depressions around the edge for forming iron.
The stock used in a forge shop should be kept in
a rack built for the purpose. The different kinds of
stock, such as soft and tool-steel, common and Swedish
iron, should be partly painted with a distinguishing
Fig. 18. Vise.
Cast Iron Swage Block.
color, so that there will be
no trouble finding what is
wanted. For instance, all
soft steel should be painted
white, tool-steel ' another
color, and so on. There
should also be in the shop
a shears to cut iron. One
of the ordinary hand-power
be suitable and may be
shears in use today would
purchased from a dealer.
In lighting the fire in the forge all of the cinders
are cleaned out down to the tuyere. This is done by
scraping them to the sides of the fire-place with the
shovel. All clinkers should be picked out with the
hands and put under the forge. It is a good plan to
pick out some of the best pieces of coke and set them to
one side on the forge, to be used later on. The slide
rod that controls the ash dump at the bottom of the
tuyere, is now pulled to allow the cinders and ashes to
drop thru. Do not allow a boy to pull the valve after
the fire is started, as this wastes the coke and is a bad
habit to get into.
THE FORGE FIRE 19
When the tuyere is clean, some shavings are lighted
in the bottom and when well burned, the coke is raked
back on the fire. A little wind is then turned on. Wet
coal is banked around the sides and back of the fire.
When the fire is well started and loosened up in front
with the poker and most of the smoke burned, it is
ready for heating. The coal in the box should be
thoroly mixed with water before putting it on the fire,
for the reason that it cokes better, and packs in around
the sides of the fire, keeping it from breaking thru.
The coal box is always at the right of the worker when
he is facing the fire. The box on his left, and between
the down draft forges, is to hold water — not coal. There
should be a water cup of some sort hanging on a hook
so that when water is needed for fire or coal it may be
handled with the cup.
A fire, when not properly handled becomes hollow,
due to' the center burning out. If iron is heated in this
kind of a fire, it will become oxidized, that is to say, a
dirty scale will form over the metal. Iron cannot be
properly heated, and it is impossible to get the welding
heat with a fire in this condition. The reason a fire
becomes hollow is that it may be filled with clinkers,
or too much blast may have been used, and when it
comes in contact with the' pieces being heated causes
them to cool and oxidize. Sometimes the fire will not
be directly over the hole in the tuyere; which is one
cause of poor heating. This is a common fault with
boys working at the forge. Always have the fire over
the hole in the tuyere, and not to one side.
When the fire becomes hollow and dirty, clean it
by picking out the clinkers with the poker or scraper,
then move the sides of the fire towards the center of the
tuyere with the shovel, keeping the well-coked inner
sides near the center of the tuyere, and having the cen-
ter of fire over the hole in the tuyere. Wet coal is now
banked around the outer sides. Always have a thick
bed of coke under the piece being heated and regulate the
blast so as not to burn out the center of the fire at once.
See drawing of fire with piece about on the same plane
<\ with bottom of hearth; notice dotted
\*\ lines representing the wrong way to
*Vx put stock in the fire. (Fig. 20.)
Fig. 20. Section of Forge Fire.
If two pieces of iron are placed in the fire and
heated, they will become gradually softer until they
reach a state where the metal has become sticky. If
touched together the two pieces will stick. This is
what is known as welding heat. If they were taken to
the anvil and hammered while in this condition they
would unite and become one piece. This would be called
welding. All metals cannot be welded. Iron, soft
steel, low-carbon tool steel and spring steel can be welded.
A flux is used in welding steel — this excludes the
air and forms a pasty surface on the metal which is
squeezed out from between the surfaces of the metal
when hammered. Borax and the many welding com-
pounds are used. Very seldom is it necessary to use a
flux on iron. Clean sand, which is good, is used by many.
Borax or welding compound is sometimes used on very
thin stock. For ordinary welding, such as is being done
in school shops, borax should never be used. It is poor
practice, unnecessary, and a useless waste.
In heating iron, if it is brought beyond the welding
heat, it will become softer and softer until it will finally
burn. This may be known by the great number of
little explosive sparks coming from the fire. These
little sparks are particles of iron separating from the
bar and burning. As the heat gradually rises, the
metal separates. If the bar were now placed on the
anvil and struck a hard blow with a hammer, it would
fly to pieces. Therefore, judgment must be used in
striking the first blow on any welding heat — it should
be light. The succeeding blows should be made gradu-
ally harder. A hard blow at the start might make the
metal fly to pieces, or make the upper piece slip away
from the under piece. If lighter blows were struck,
the weld might be made in good shape.
The principal thing in welding is to have a clean
fire. All of the clinkers must be kept out. The fire
should be a well burned one, without much smoke or
gas, and never any green coal near the pieces being
heated. Well burned pieces of coke around the metal
should always be used in raising the welding heat. In
raising the welding heat very little blast should be used
at first. Heat the pieces slowly so as to get them hot
Electric Welding — Oxy-acetylene Gas Welding — The Fagot Weld —
The Separate Heat Weld — Scarfing — Upsetting — Making the
Weld — Lap Welding Without Scarfing — Jump Welding — Butt
Weld— Split Welding— Comer Weld— T Weld.
A RAPID blast on the start, not only heats the
outer part of the metal first and not the center,
but it also burns out the fire and makes it become
hollow before the metal has the welding heat. There is
a right and a wrong way of taking a welding heat from
the fire to the anvil. The pieces must be lifted clear up
out of the fire, and must not be dragged thru the dirt
and cinders on the inner edge of the fire. Iron will not
unite when dirty. It is very easy to get a clean heat if
one will pay attention to having the fire clean. Do not
attempt to get the welding heat in a dirty fire; this is
one thing that must be impressed upon the mind of
one working at the forge. The skillful worker in iron
always pays particular attention to the fire, for he knows
by experience that it must be clean, in order to do good
Welding is also done with an electric welding ma-
chine. The pieces to be welded are clamped and held
in bronze clamps. The clamps are adjusted so that
the ends of the pieces to be welded touch. They can be
moved so as to bring the pieces into close contact or
separate them. When the pieces are in close contact,
the current is turned on. The pieces are then separated
a little so that the current jumps across the space be-
tween them, forming an electric arc. This heats the
THE FAGOT WELD 23
ends to a welding heat, and by forcing them together
they are welded.
Another form of welding is by the oxy-acetylene
gas method. It is being used extensively at present, and
has been found very valuable and economical in mak-
ing the lighter welds. It is possible to weld steel, iron,
cast-iron, copper, brass and aluminum by this process.
The apparatus consists of a specially designed blow
pipe, an acetylene tank and an oxygen tank under pres-
The method of welding is to heat the pieces to be
welded with the blow pipe until they reach the fusion
point. For instance, in welding cast-iron, the pieces are
clamped together, a V shape is cut nearly thru the joint,
the metal is heated to the fusion point, and a feeder,
which is a small cast-iron rod, is melted into it. In weld-
ing steel, the feeder is a steel rod; for copper or brass
welding, a rod of copper or brass is used. Nowadays
this method is extensively used in automobile work,
in repairing cracked cylinders.
A very simple weld to make by heating in the forge,
is what is known as the fagot weld. In doing this, two
or three pieces are welded by simply laying one piece on
top of the other, or a bundle of pieces of iron of various
sizes and shapes are bound together, heated and welded.
For example, if a bar of flat iron is heated and cut half
thru in several places, doubled over and over, one piece
on top of the other and then welded in order to make
a large piece of stock this would be called a fagot weld.
In Figure 21, the pieces are represented ready to
make a fagot weld.
The welding of two pieces of stock by scarfing and
lapping is known as a separate-heat-weld, so called be-
cause the pieces are detached while the heat is taken.
In making any kind of a weld there is more or less stock
wasted in the raising of the welding heat, therefore
the parts to be lapped and welded are always upset
or thickened and then scarfed. The word "scarfed"
means the shaping of the ends of the bars so that when
heated and lapped one on top of the other, they will fit
and make a splice, leaving the stock when hammered
about its original size.
The method of upsetting is to heat the ends of the
bar, then set the hot end on the anvil with the bar .
vertical and hammer on the other end. This thickens
the heated end. If it is a long heavy bar, the worker
churns the bar up and down striking the hot end on the
anvil. A bar may also be heated on the end, then
fastened in a vise and the hot part hammered to thicken
it. In upsetting, the bar must be kept straight as
hammering will bend it where heated ; if not kept straight,
it will not thicken.
When a piece is upset about one inch in diameter
for a three-quarter inch, round bar, it is scarfed by set-
ting the hot end on and near the outer edge of the anvil.
It is then driven back on a bevel by hammering. See
Figure 22. It is also turned on the side and beveled
on both sides to nearly a point. See Figure 23. The
scarf must not be hammered when the piece is held in
the center of the anvil, (Figure 24), for the reason that
the edge of the hammer comes in contact with the anvil,
pecking dents in it or breaking out pieces from the
Another method of scarfing is to hammer the end
partly back as previously explained, then set the piece
on the inner edge of the anvil and hammer it as shown
in Figure 25. After each blow, it is drawn away from
the edge of the anvil just a little; this tapers it with a
series of little steps, not for the purpose of making
notches in the scarfs to fit together and hold while ham-
mering, but simply because the edge of the anvil leaves
it in this condition when tapered. It is also drawn
pointed by hammering on the outer edge of the anvil.
Theory teaches that the scarf should be made with
the beveled part convexed. However, in practice, it is
made to look like the drawing in Figure 26. Note the
raised parts at "D". This is forced up when the scarf
is first driven back with the hammer as shown at "B".
The reason that the high part should be on the scarf,
is, that when lapped it gives an additional amount of
stock at this part of the laps to be hammered. If the
scarfs are made flat, when hammered, they are not liable
to finish up without having the pieces thin, or the point
of the lap exposed. If the scarfs are made concave,
it is claimed by some workers of iron that dirt will de-
posit there and result in a poor weld. This is true to
some extent. However, dirt will deposit on any scarf
unless the fire is clear. With a concaved scarf when
lapped, there is not stock enough to be hammered with-
out leaving the pieces thin, or the lapping too long when
welded. Scarfs should not be made concave.
Notice in Figure 27, the incorrect way of scarfing
and in Figure 28, the correct way.
The scarfs must not be made too long; this is a
common fault with all beginners and one to avoid.
MAKING THE WELD 27
The scarfs should be made a little longer than the thick-
ness of the iron, perhaps lj times the thickness.
In raising the welding heat, the pieces must be placed
in the fire with the scarfs, or beveled part, down. The
fire must be a clean one. A well burned fire is best.
A new fire is not a good one to raise the welding heat
in, as there is too much smoke and green coal that comes
in contact with the metal. The hammer should be
placed on the anvil about over the square hole, so it will
be handy to reach when making the weld. The anvil
should also be clean. A heavy hammer should be used
in welding. The proper way to hold the hand hammer
is with the fingers around the handle and the thumb
protruding along the side and near the top. The
thumb should never grip around the handle, but lie
along the side to guide and direct the blows. When
using the sledge hammer, stand in front of the anvil
and not at its side, and let the first blow be a light one.
In heating a slow blast is maintained. When the
pieces begin to get about yellow, more blast is used.
The pieces can be watched without removing them from
the fire. They should be turned over occasionally,
moving them nearer to the surface of fire to see how the
heat is progressing, and then under the coke again. Care
must be taken to get both pieces heated alike. If one
piece should get hotter than the other, it can be moved
over in the fire a little, and the cool one put in its place.
Perhaps the fire is hotter in one spot than another.
If one piece is heating much faster than the other, lift
it clear up and out of the fire for a few seconds to cool
and give the other piece a chance to become hotter. If
the points of the scarf are heating too fast for the body,
the pieces must be pushed thru the fire a little farther.
28 PRACTICAL FORGING
It is a good plan sometimes, when the pieces are
about a yellow heat to shut off the wind for a moment,
to let the pieces and fire even up and give the heat a
chance to soak thru them. As the pieces become nearly-
white, the blast is increased. Welding heat is about
1900° — 2000° Fahrenheit, and can only be determined
by experience. When the temperature of the pieces
reaches the welding heat, they are lifted up and out
of the fire and taken by the smith to the anvil, without
the aid of a helper. The smith raps them against one
another or against the anvil to dislodge any dirt that
may be on the scarfs. The piece in the left hand is set
against the inner edge of the anvil. The piece in the
right hand is now moved across the anvil until it comes
under the top one. See Figure 29. The piece in the
left hand is then placed on the under one, by simply
raising the hand, teetering the piece on the edge of the
anvil, and holding it firmly by pressing down. This is
important. The smith lets go of the piece in his right
hand, and taking the hammer strikes lightly until the
two are stuck, after which he welds them together with
solid blows, first on one side, then on the other and
finally on the corners.
MAKING THE WELD 29
It requires some practice to be able to take two
pieces from the fire and place them in position on the
anvil to be welded. This should be practiced by the
pupil under the eye of the teacher, perhaps a dozen or
more times, with the cold pieces before he undertakes
to get the welding heat. If one cannot take the pieces
out and place them in position, he cannot make a weld
of this kind.
Two boys should not be allowed to work together
on this weld. One can do it much better than two. It
is a one-man job. There is nothing difficult about it,
after the method is learned by deliberate and persistent
practice with the cold iron. There is no need of hurry-
ing when taking the pieces out of the fire to the anvil.
If the scarfs are too long, they will over-lap one
another too far and cannot be welded down quickly
enough. If too short, they hammer down too quickly
to make a good job, and the weld will be thin.
If the scarfs are the right length and about the
same size, which is important, the weld will finish down
in good shape and make a smooth job, providing the
ends are clean. When the pieces being heated, look as
tho they are covered with grease, you may be sure the
fire is dirty, or is too new.
Lap Welding Without Scarfing.
A lap weld is sometimes made without scarfing the
ends. For instance, pieces of 1 "x| " iron are to be welded
by the lap method. They are brought to a welding
heat without upsetting; taken to the anvil as previously
explained for the scarf weld, lapped about 5-16-inch,
as shown in Figure 30, and welded. This form of welding
is used in a hurry-up job where there is no great amount
of strain on the work. It is impossible to make a
strong weld this way. Very thin stock, either iron or
steel, can be welded to advantage in this manner by
hammering on the fiat sides. The edges, instead of
being hammered, are cut off with a chisel, then ground
or filed smooth. In welding very thin stock, a little
flux is used. Always weld by separate heats, and do
not rivet or split the stock to hold both ends in place.
This is not necessary. Try to make the weld with one
heat. All good welds are made in one heat.
For example, a piece like the one shown in Figure
31, is to be made by welding. The pieces should be
prepared as shown in Figure 32. The square piece is
1" by 1" by 6", the fiat
one \\" by \" by 8". The
square piece is heated di-
rectly on one end. If the heat
JUMP WELDING 31
cannot be taken short enough, it may be cooled in water
so as to upset it with a lip or projection, as shown.
This lip can be worked out afterwards with a fuller,
or it may be driven into a heading tool which has the
top corners of the hole rounded. This will leave the cor-
ners of the lip round as shown. The bar at the end should
also be made slightly convex, so that the center part
comes in contact with the flat piece first. The flat piece
is also upset in the center.
In welding, separate heats are taken. With the
square bar, handled with the right hand, the pieces are
brought to the anvil by the smith. The square bar is
set on top of the flat one, and a helper strikes the top
piece with the sledge, driving it down into the bottom
one. The edge of the lip is then welded fast with a
hand-hammer; or a fuller or set hammer is used, the
helper striking with a sledge.
Iron may be welded by butting the ends together.
In doing this, the bars must be long enough so that they
can be handled without tongs. For instance, two bars
of one-inch round stock, one five feet long and the other
shorter are to be welded. This size is about as light as
can be welded with this method. The ends are heated
and upset a little making them a little high in the center
so that when they are placed together, the contact is in
32 PRACTICAL FORGING
the center. A short heat is taken on the end of each
bar. The smith takes out the long bar and the helper
the short one, butting the ends together on the anvil,
as shown in Figure 33. The helper hammers on the end
of the short piece with a heavy hammer while the smith
holds the long one firmly, and hammers on the joint, at
the same time turning the bar so as to hammer the
joint all around. In welding heavier stock, a sledge
should be used requiring more helpers. This method
makes a good weld, providing the heats are clean.
Figure 34 shows a drawing of round stock prepared
for a split weld. In making this weld, one piece is
heated on the end, caught in a vise and split with a
thin chisel. See Figure 35.
These prongs are then spread and scarfed on the
inside with the ball of the hammer letting them become
fan shape and as wide as possible. See Figure 36. The
other piece is upset and both pieces are caught in the
vise. The scarf is then hammered tight and the ends
are cut so as not to have them too long. See Figure 37.
The cutting of the scarf, and partly into the bar, helps
to bind the pieces firmly while the heat is being taken
See drawing of piece ready to be welded, Figure 38.
A heat is now taken, using a little sand or welding
flux, if the stock is very small. In welding, the first
blow is struck on the end of the split piece to drive it
down tight and weld it in the center. See Figure 39.
The sides are next hammered to weld the laps. It is
then finished. On heavy work, the heats are taken
separately and placed on the anvil by the smith, in the
same manner as described for a jump weld. Another
form of split welding is shown in Figure 40. This method
is used in welding heavy iron and steel, such as picks and
drills. Notice the little beards cut with a chisel to help
hold the pieces in position when heating. Heavy tool
steel is also welded with this form of splitting. The
first blow struck with the hammer on this weld, is on
the end, forcing the pieces together; then on the flat part.
In Figure 41 is shown an angle made by welding
on the corner; this is called a corner weld. It is generally
made by using square or fiat stock. Figure 42 shows the
scarfs prepared for a corner weld, using 1" by \" stock.
The piece at "A" is scarfed with the ball of the hammer.
The one at B, with the face of the hammer. Separate
heats are taken and the pieces lapped and welded.
The scarfs for T- welds are made in just the same
manner as for the corner weld, excepting that one scarf
is in the center of the bar. See Figure 43.
In taking the pieces from the fire to the anvil, the
one scarfed in the center is handled with the tongs in
the left hand. The one scarfed on the end is handled
with the right hand, letting it under the other, and then
hammered. Notice how wide the scarf is made on the
end piece at "A". This is done to cover the other
scarf. All flat "T" scarfs are made in this manner.
Corner Weld — Brazing — Fagot Weld — Turning a Loose Eye —
Hammock Hook — Finishing Wrought Iron — S Link — Welded
A CORNER weld made by using heavy stock, for
example, one and one-fourth inch square, is to
have a square corner by welding. See Figure 44. With
the dimensions six inches from one end, the bar is
heated and cut about half thru from one side with a hot
chisel. The bar is then heated and bent to about a
right angle, as shown in Figure 45. A piece of f-in.
square stock is cut on four sides as shown in Figure 46.
This piece is welded into the corner as shown in Figure
47. The heat is separate, and the smith takes both
pieces to the anvil when hot. He places them in posi-
tion as shown in the drawing, the helper doing the weld-
ing. The long part of the bar is then broken off, another
heat is taken and the corner is finished up by the smith.
Iron and steel can be fastened together by brazing.
In doing this, the ends are tapered or dove-tailed to-
gether and bound with wire or a rivet to hold them in
position. They are then placed in the fire and brought
to a red heat. Some borax and spelter are put on and
the heat is raised until the brass flows. The work is
then taken out of the fire and let cool; then it is finished
with a file, or by grinding. Spelter is an alloy of copper
and zinc, and may be purchased from dealers. Brass
wire may also be used in brazing, and sometimes copper.
In teaching boys forging, the writer feels that it is
a waste of time to give a beginner little pieces to make,
such as staples, hooks, etc. A boy cannot learn to
handle his hammer, or to heat a piece of stock by mak-
ing small things. What the beginner in forging needs
is some work that he can swing a hammer on without
danger of spoiling it. Very few boys on entering a shop
can handle a hammer, and they certainly do not learn
about heating metal in a forge, by working at staples,
etc. The first exercise should be a fagot weld.
Exercise No. 1. — Fagot Weld.
In doing this, two pieces of iron \ in. square and
6 in. long are used. The instructor demonstrates the
welding of these two pieces before the class. In making
the weld, one piece is laid on top of the other and both
are caught at one end with a pair of tongs. The tongs
38 PRACTICAL FORGING
should fit the pieces nicely; a ring is placed over the
ends of handles to bind the jaws firmly on to the pieces.
A heat is then taken on about one-half of the length of
the stock; the pieces are welded and at the same time
drawn to \ in. square. The pieces are now turned
around in the tongs and the balance is heated and
welded. While drawing stock always have the bar at
right angles with the long side of the anvil. If the bar
In position to weld
is not so held, it will twist on the slightly rounded face
of the anvil.
There will be more or less iron burned by the boys
in making this fagot weld; but this is necessary, for a
boy can never learn how to work iron until he can heat
it properly. He must over-heat and burn iron in order
to understand the heat limitations of the metal.
After the weld is made and the bar is drawn to
the original size, the ends must be squared by upset-
WELDING A RING
ting them. The bar when finished should be § in.
square thruout its length, and straight with the ends
It is then formed into a loose ring by hammer-
ing it over the horn of the anvil and not on a ring man-
drel. In forming the ring, the ends are upset on an
angle, so that when bent into ring form, they,, will fit
together nicely. See Figure 48.
Exercise No. 2. •
This exercise will be made in the same manner as
number one, excepting that the bar is finished to 7-16
in. square, and a ring is turned on each end. See
The eye is formed by heating and hammering it
over the horn of the anvil, giving it the shape as shown
at B. It is then re-heated, set on the horn of the anvil
and hammered close to the eye as shown at C, which
bends it central with the shank as shown at D.
In turning loose eyes of any size stock or dimen-
sions, on the end of a bar, the ring is first turned into
a circle of the desired size. It is then sprung central
MAKING A HAMMOCK HOOK
with the shank. With this method, no figuring of
stock is required.
Exercise No. 3.
In making a hammock hook, the stock should be
soft steel, which may be purchased for about the same
price as iron. It will stand the bending strains better
than iron. The size of the stock is 7J in. by f in.
round. The end is heated and a loose eye formed.
The other end is drawn to a taper with J in. of the end
turned up as shown. See drawing of hook, Figure 50,
and the different steps in forming the eye at A, B and
C. The hook is formed over the horn of the anvil as
shown in Figure 51. Figure 52 shows the finished hook
with a dotted line drawn thru the center, indicating
where the pull should come. In Figure 53 is shown a
common fault when turning a loose ring at the end of
42 PRACTICAL FORGING
a bar, in not bending the extreme end first. Notice
Figure 54, where the end is bent as it should be.
The expert worker in iron is very careful not to
hammer mark and destroy the section of a bar. One
should remember that bending a ring or iron hook is
simply holding the bar on the horn of the anvil and
striking the part that protrudes past it. Never strike
the bar when it is directly over the horn. This does
not bend it, but makes a dent in the stock.
To finish wrought iron, all of the scale and dirt
should be scraped off with an old file while the piece is
hot. When the iron is cooled, linseed or machine oil is
rubbed on. If the work is held over the smoke of the
fire and then oiled, it will take on a darker color. Never
paint iron work. This destroys the texture of the metal.
Do not file work bright. It should be dark — filing is
Exercise No. 4. — S-Link.
Figure 55 shows a drawing of an S-Link, which is
used to splice broken chains. In Figure 56 is shown
\ m v i
Cl • o
Fig. 55. Fig. 56.
the length and size of the stock. The ends are drawn
to a short point and the center of the bar is marked
with a center punch. One-half of the link is then formed,
bringing the point at the center punch mark and using
WELDED EYE PIN
one-half of the
bar. This is a sim-
ple link to make.
The only thing to
be careful about
is to not destroy
the section of the
bar with hammer
marks. This may
be avoided if one
does not strike the hook directly over the horn of the
anvil, but to one side of the horn. See in Figure 57,
the correct blow.
Exercise No. 5.
Figure 58 shows a drawing for a welded Eye Pin.
The eye may be made any size for practice. In mak-
ing the ring, the bar is heated in the center and ham-
mered over the outer edge of the anvil, as shown in
Figure 59. The piece is now turned end for end, and
jogged down again with the ball of the hammer. See
Figure 60. The piece should now look like the drawing
in Figure 61. The center of the piece is heated and
hammered over the horn of the anvil to make the ring
round and to bring the shanks together. See Figure 62.
In welding, the piece is caught by the ring with a
flat pair of tongs. See Figure 63. It is now placed in
the fire so as to get the heat close to the ring. The
tongs are then removed, until the piece reaches a white
heat; the piece is again caught with the tongs, and the
heat is raised. It is taken out and set on the edge of
Fig. 59 (above). Fig. 60 (below).
Fig. 61 (above). Fig. 62 (right). Fig. 63 (left, below).
the anvil and hammered as shown in Figure 64. The
first blow struck is close to the ring in order to weld
that part first. If it cannot be all welded in one heat, it
should be re-heated at once. Do not hammer unless
WELDED EYE PIN
the heat is a welding heat, as the stock will become too
thin before it is welded. Do not heat the tongs red as
this destroys them and the piece cannot be held with
hot tongs. When the ring is welded, the end is drawn
to a square point. See Figure 65.
Staples — Open Links — Welded Chain Links — Punching — A Grab
Exercise No. 6.
STAPLES are used for hasps, gate hooks, and for var-
ious other purposes. They are made from all sizes
of stock, depending on the use to which they are put.
On account of its pliability, soft steel is the best stock
to use in making staples.
The length to cut stock is shown in the drawing
of the staple in Figure 66. The stock is caught at one
end with a pair of light tongs. The piece is then heated
and drawn out to a point; it is reversed in the tongs
and the other end is drawn out. The center of the piece
is then reheated and bent into shape over the horn of
In drawing any piece of stock to a tapered point,
the taper should not be hamraered on one side con-
tinuously and, when turned over, 'hammered back again.
To have a taper on all four sides" alike, the bar must be
WELDED CHAIN LINK
raised the proper distance and not laid flat on the anvil.
Figure 67 illustrates the wrong way and Figure 68, the
Exercise No. 7.
In Figure 69 is shown a drawing of an open link.
Open links are used in the splicing of broken chains.
In splicing a chain, the link is opened by driving a
chisel between the laps, or it is opened when made.
These laps are hooked into links of broken chain and
® y k
then driven together. In making the link, one end is
drawn to a flat point and a hook ip hammered on it.
See Figure 70. The other end is heated and drawn out
as in Figure 71. The center of the piece is now heated
and bent over the horn of the anvil to the desired shape.
See Figure 72. Notice in
the drawing that the hooks
at the open end of the
link are not very long.
They should not be made
longer than shown.
Exercise No. 8. — Welding a
The form and length of the stock for this exercise
is shown in Figure 73. The link may be made from
iron or soft steel. After the stock is cut, it is heated
in the center and bent over the horn of the anvil into a
"U" shape. See Figure 74. The ends are now heated
and scarfed by setting them on the anvil as shown in
Figure 75. The iron is then struck on top with the
hand hammer. After each blow, it is moved away from
the anvil just a little, giving the end a bevel, so that,
when finished, the scarf consists of a series of slanting
In scarfing, both ends of the links are set on the
anvil. The end of the one on the right hand side must
not be moved when scarfing the other. After each
WELDED CHAIN LINK
blow of the hammer, the piece is moved just a little.
If it is moved too far and the other end of the link is
fixed it will describe an arc. See Figure 76. This is
the method used in scarfing links. Sometimes they are
welded without scarfing, but it is not good practice.
Figure 77 shows the link scarfed, lapped and ready
to be welded. In welding, the heat is taken directly
on the end of the lap and not on the sides, so as not to
burn the stock above the laps. When the link has the
welding heat, it is taken to the anvil and hammered on
the flat sides, then set on the horn of the anvil, and
hammered on the corners. See Figure 78. The shape
of the link at the weld should be just a little pointed for
a strong link.
In making chains,
do not weld two single
links and then one be-
tween them. Weld a
link on the end of the
chain and keep re-
peating until finished.
Exercise No. 9.
Punching holes thru
hot iron is not a diffi-
cult exercise. For instance: A f-in. hole is to be punched
thru a flat piece of iron or steel. The piece is heated, taken
to the anvil and a punch set on the spot to be punched.
The punch is struck three or four blows with the hand
hammer driving it into the metal as shown in Figure
79. The piece is then turned over and the punch is
set over the dark spot which is caused by the former
blows, and is driven thru. See Figure 80. Square
and other shaped holes are punched in the same manner.
Thin stock is punched cold. In doing this, the piece
to be punched is set on the punch block and the punch
driven thru the metal into the hole of the block. A
punch-block is a round or square block of steel with one
or more tapered holes thru it. See Figure 81.
Fig. 80. Left. Fig. 79. Center. Fig. 81. Right
Figure 82 shows some holes that could be punched
while the metal is hot A hole like the one shown at A,
is made with a punch of that shape; the next hole is
made with the same punch. Afterwards the hole is
upset or shortened by heating and cooling each side of
the hole. The bar is then hammered on the end. This
shortens and spreads the metal. The hole is made true
by driving a round punch thru it. The stock used for
this exercise should be soft steel.
Exercise No. 10. — A Grab Hook for a Log Chain.
Figure 83 shows a drawing of the hook with size of
stock to be used. The stock should be mild steel,
p. (,£ •"
6§ by f by f inches. To form the eye one end is heated
and shouldered back one inch from the end, by hammer-
ing it on the anvil as shown in Figure 84. The eye
is then rounded with the hammer and the hole punched
with a hand punch. The hole is countersunk by ham-
mering it on the horn as shown in Figure 85. The
point is next drawn out and then the hook is heated in
the center. It is cooled each side of the center and
hammered over the horn to bend, then on the anvil as
shown at Figure 86. A piece of f-in. flat iron is set on
the inside of the hook and the hook hammered to fit
the iron. This leaves the opening of the hook uniform
and just the size required. See Figure 87.
Bolts — Capping Tool — Gate Hook — Hay Hook-
Expansion of Heated Iron.
Exercise No. 11.
BOLTS may be made in one piece by upsetting the
end of a bar, then squaring the head by driving the
piece into a heading tool. A bolt may also be made
by welding a collar around the end of a bar after which
the head is squared.
Figure 88 shows a welded bolt head. After the
stock is cut to proper length, the collar for the head
is made. It is heated and hammered over the horn of
the anvil to make it round. The end of the collar is
now cut off on the hardie, cutting clear thru from one
side and giving it a bevel. The other end is cut from
the opposite side giving it a bevel also. See drawing
at A. The collar is driven on the end of the bar while
the collar is cold and the bar is hot. When the collar is
hammered on the end of the bar, there should be about
§-in. crack. See drawing at B. The reason is that,
in welding, the collar is lengthened: Hammering
stretches the metal, and it must have end room. When
the collar is ready the bar is' heated on the end and up-
set just a little. A heat is then taken, and the collar is
welded by striking it on four sides, letting the opening
form one of the corners. The bolt is then inserted into
a |-in. hole in a heading tool to smooth the end of the
head with a hammer. A cupping tool is next set on
to the head and given a few
good blows with the hammer.
This bevels the top corners of
the square head. A cupping
tool is a piece of tool steel
,, ir , i(l with a half round depression
in one end. See Figure 89.
The heads of bolts can be beveled with the ham-
mer, instead of with a cupping tool. Figure 90 shows
a tool to be used in the vise to make heads on light
rods. The rod is heated and inserted into the hole;
then the vise is tightened after which the ends are
Exercise No. 12 — Forging a Gate Hook.
Figure 91 shows the length and size of stock which
should be of soft steel. One and one-half inches from
each end of the bar is marked with a center punch.
One end is drawn round to a point. The other is ham-
mered round for the eye. See Figure 92. In the draw-
ing Figure 93, the eye and the hook are shown turned.
Z y Z-
Fig. 91 (above). Fig. 92 (below).
The center part of the hook is square and is to be twisted.
This is done by heating the square part to a uniform
heat and cooling each end. The hook is then twisted
with two pairs of tongs, or it may be caught in a vise
and twisted with one pair of tongs. See drawing of
. the finished
shows a tool
horn; it fits
square hole of the
anvil. It is used
to turn very
small eyes at the
end of a bar. A
piece of lf-in. round soft steel is used in making it, by
drawing the end square to fit the hole in the anvil. It
is afterwards bent over and the taper drawn as shown.
Exercise No. 13 — Making a Hay Hook.
Figure 96 shows the stock which should be soft
steel, to be used in making a Hay Hook. The eye is
— //' >
first turned, using 11 inches of the bar. The end is
then heated and drawn to a point after which it is bent
as shown in the drawing.
Exercise No. 14 — Welding Ring.
Figure 97 shows a drawing for a ring to be made
from §-in. round stock cut 10 inches long. The whole
is heated red at one time and then formed into shape
by hammering it over the horn as shown in Figure 98.
The ends are now heated and scarfed in the same manner
as described for the welded link. When they are lapped
and ready for welding, they should look like Figure 99.
Notice that the ring is made egg shape so that a heat
may be taken directly on the ends of the scarfs and not
at the sides. The ring when welded is formed round.
Another method of welding rings is to upset the
ends and then form the rings. It is scarfed as explained
above. This is seldom done in practical work because
it is too slow, and the other method is about as strong.
In welding the ring, it is handled in the same
manner as in welding links. To find the amount of
stock for rings, the inside diameter plus the thickness
of stock is multiplied by 3.1416 or 3 1-7. To this is
added enough stock for the lap of the weld. For ex-
ample a ring is required of one-inch stock. The inside
measure is 10 inches. Solution: (10 + 1) x 3 1-7 =
11 x 3 1-7 = 34 4-7 i \ inch for welding.
In heating a piece of iron to be formed into a ring,
it should never be heated to the welding heat. A
welding heat on any piece of work that is not to be
hammered destroys the texture of the metal. Any
piece of work to be formed, should be heated evenly
and not too hot.
Iron when heated expands. For example, if a piece
of stock 12 by 1 by 5-19 in. is heated red its entire length
and then measured, it will be about 12J in. long. When
the piece is cooled it will go back to. its original length
of twelve inches.
In making bands or tires for wagons, they are made
a little short, then heated and put on, letting them
shrink to their original size, which makes them tight.
Wrought Iron Lantern.
Marking Tongs — Pig Iron — Puddling — The Bessemer Process —
The Open Hearth Process — Crucible Steel — The Cementation
Process — Tempering.
Exercise No. 16.
IN forging tongs, stock f-in. square of Norway or
Swedish iron may be used, as it is much easier for
a beginner in welding the handle on to the jaws. Soft
steel may be used later on if desired. Figure 100 shows
Fig. 100. Blacksmith's Tongs.
the drawing of a finished pair of flat tongs. Figure 101
shows the size of stock used and the dimensions of the
rough forgings. It is not intended that the dimen-
sions given are to be accurately followed, but they are
given as an idea of what may be forged from this size of
stock. In forging the jaws, no helper is required to
handle a sledge hammer after the piece is cut from the
bar for the reason that it is time lost for the one who
handles it, besides one man can do it.
In forging the jaws a heavy hand hammer is used,
and the bar is heated to the welding heat, or near it.
One and one-eighth inch of the bar is set on the inner
edge of the anvil and the lip is hammered as shown in
Figure 102. The lip must not be turned and ham-
mered on its edge. Let it get as wide as it will, and do
not hammer it too thin. After the shoulder has been
started for the length of the lip, it must not be moved.
A common fault is to start the shoulder and then to
find that the lip is not long enough and proceed to
Rivet -^ 1 E3 "N
make another shoulder. The result of the second
shoulder is that when nearly finished a crack will be
discovered. The reason that second shoulder starts
a crack is that the metal stretched over the first shoulder.
This is called a cold shut. See Figure 103. Another
common fault is to lower the bar when making the lip.
This pulls the lip on an angle with the bar and when it
is straightened, another crack is formed in the corner.
See Figure 104. The bar must be on the same plane
with the anvil face at all times. When the lip is made,
the bar is turned to the left, setting it on the outer edge
of the anvil and hammering to form the shoulder for
the eye. See Figure 105. It is then turned again to
the left hand and hammered down for the last shoulder.
At this time the stock required for the eye is beyond
the outer edge of the anvil. See Figure 106.
The rough forging should always be made a little
larger than the finished tongs; finishing it to size when
the handle is welded on. When both jaws are forged,
they are cut in the center and the handles are welded
on. When the handles are well upset and scarfed, the
shanks of the jaws are drawn to equal size. Care must
be taken in having the scarfed ends equal in size or a
BLACKSMITH'S TONGS • 63
poor weld will result. The handles at the weld are
drawn square with the corners tapered off. The jaws
are now drawn and fitted to size. Notice that the lip
tapers on the edge, also on the flat part. A small
flute is fullered lengthways on the inside of the lip so that
round as well as flat iron may be held. The hole is next
punched thru the eye with a hand punch. A piece of
f-in. rod of soft steel is cut to the proper length and used
for a rivet. It is heated and inserted into the holes in
the jaws and hammered on both sides with hard blows.
The jaws of the tongs are now heated red and worked
back and forth to loosen the rivet in the eye. The jaws
are fitted to the size of the stock they are to handle as
in Figure 107. The regular stock rivets should not be
used in tongs. The f-in. round piece headed from both
sides fits the holes thru the eye best.
In making tongs to hold a larger piece of stock,
the square bar should have an offset. The jaws should
then be forged as in Figure 108. Notice where the ham-
mer strikes the bar to offset it.
In forging tongs, the handles should be welded to
the jaws to give practice in welding.
64 PRACTICAL FORGING
Pig iron is made by smelting the iron ore in a
blast furnace. The ore is charged in a furnace mixed
with lime stone as a flux, and melted by using coke
or coal as fuel. The resulting metal is called pig iron.
It contains from three to five per cent of carbon, two
to four per cent of silicon and various small amounts
of sulphur, phosphorus and manganese.
Wrought iron is made by melting the pig iron in
a puddling furnace; about one-half ton is charged at
a time. After it is softened, it is stirred with large
iron hooks by the puddler and his helper. It is kept
kneaded to expose every part to the action of the flame,
so as to burn out all of the carbon. All the other im-
purities separate from the iron and form what is known
as the puddle clinker.
Pig iron melts at about 2100° F., steel at 2500° F.,
and wrought iron at 2800° F., so the temperature of
the puddling furnace is kept high enough to melt pig
iron but not hot enough to keep wrought iron in a
liquid state. Consequently, as soon as the iron becomes
pure it forms a spongy mass. This mass of sponge is
divided into lumps of about 100 or 150 pounds which
are taken to a squeezer and formed into blocks. In
the operation of squeezing the greater proportion of
impurities left in the iron after the puddling, are re-
moved. While these blocks are still hot they are rolled
into flat musk bars. The bars are now cut and heated
to white heat in a furnace, taken to the rolls, welded
and rolled into merchant bars. In the welding and roll-
ing the cinder coated globules of iron are forced close
together as the iron is welded. This gives the iron a
fibrous structure increasing its strength.
In making steel by the Bessemer process, the pig
iron is put into a large pear shaped vessel called the con-
verter. The bottom is double; the inner casing is per-
forated with holes called tuyeres, to admit air forced
under pressure. From ten to fifteen tons of molten
iron at one time are poured into the converter while
it is lying on its side. The compressed air is now turned
into the double bottom as the converter rises to a
vertical position. The air has sufficient pressure to
prevent the metal from entering the tuyeres, and it
passes up and thru the metal, burning out the carbon.
After the blast which lasts about ten minutes, the
metal is practically liquid wrought iron. The converter
is now laid on its side and the blast is shut off. A cer-
tain amount of molten spiegeleisen (white cast iron con-
taining much carbon or ferromanganese is added so as to
give the steel the proper amount of carbon and man-
ganese to make it suitable for its purpose. The steel
is then poured into ingots and rolled into rails, girders,
etc. Carbon is pure charcoal; manganese is a chemical
element very difficult to fuse, but easily oxidized.
Open Hearth Process.
The open hearth process of steel manufacturing
is similar to the puddling process. The carbon is re-
moved by the action of an oxidizing flame of burning
gas. The furnace has a capacity of forty or fifty tons
and is heated with gas or oil. The gas and air needed
for its combustion are heated to a temperature of over
66 PRACTICAL FORGING
1000° F. before entering the combustion chamber,
by passing thru so-called regenerative chambers. Ow-
ing to the preheating of the gas and air a very high
temperature can be maintained in the furnace so as to
keep the iron liquid after it has parted with the carbon.
The stirring up of the metal is not done with hooks
as in puddling furnace but by adding certain propor-
tions of iron scales or other oxides the chemical
reaction of which keeps the metal in a state of agitation.
With the open hearth process the metal can be tested
from time to time. When it contains the proper amount
of carbon it is drawn off thru the tapping hole at the
bottom of the hearth, leaving the slag at the top. As
steel is produced in a liquid form, from which impuri-
ties have been removed in the form of slag that rises
and floats at the top, the metal is homogeneous and
practically without grain. Wrought iron will outlast
steel when exposed to the weather.
Crucible steel, or tool steel, also called cast steel,
is made by using high grade, Swedish, wrought iron and
adding carbon which is low in phosporus content. The
oldest method is called the "Cementation Process." The
iron bars were packed in air-tight retorts with powdered
charcoal between them. They were put in a cementa-
tion furnace, heated red and kept at this temperature
for several days. The bars, in this way, absorbed the car-
bon from the charcoal. The carbonized bars (called
"blister steel") were then cut into small pieces, remelted
in a crucible, poured in ingots and rolled into bars.
The newer method is to melt small pieces of Nor-
way or Swedish iron base with charcoal in a graphite
or clay crucible. It is then poured into moulds and
made into ingots, after which it is forged or rolled into
The crucible process enables the manufacture of
steel to almost exact analysis and insures a clean and
pure material. It also absorbs the carbon much faster
than steel made the old way.
In the school forge shop, the tool steel used should
be of an inexpensive kind. High priced steel should
not be used as more or less is wasted by the pupils in
working. A carbon steel should be used for all forge
shop tools. About 75 to 95 point is suitable. High-
speed tool steel should be used only to give the pupils
instruction in its handling and use, and to familiarize
them with the different kinds of steel and their
To the steel maker, temper means the percentage of
carbon in the steel. The word point means one-hun-
dredth of one per cent, thus 10 point carbon means ten
one-hundredths of one per cent. One hundred and
fifty point carbon contains one and one-half per cent.
This is about as high as is generally made. One hundred
and fifty point is known as high temper; low temper is
about 40 point. Steel containing less than 40 point
does not harden to advantage and is classed with ma-
chinery steel. There is a range of tempers between
high and low point which are used for different kinds of
In the forge shop the term temper means the de-
gree of hardness given to a piece of tool steel. As an
example, a piece of steel is heated to a dark red color
and cooled in water or oil. This is called hardening.
If this piece is too hard for the purpose intended, it is
then tempered to reduce some of its hardness, and to
give the steel elasticity and strength. In doing this,
it is subjected to heat, (the more heat the softer the piece
68 PRACTICAL FORGING
becomes). In the forge shop, in tempering steel, the
metal is polished bright after hardening. If it is a
small piece, it is then held on or near a piece of hot
iron. As the piece becomes heated, the steel heated
in the air assumes colors; at first a very faint yellow
and gradually darker, until all of the color has dis-
appeared leaving the steel without any trace of hardness.
These different colors as they appear on the sur-
face of hardened steel represent different degrees of
hardness. The following simple list of colors applies
to the different tools and carbon to use:
Light straw — 430° F. Lathe tools — 130 point car-
Dark straw — 470° F. Taps and dies — 120 point
Purple gray — 530° F. Chisels and blacksmiths'
tools, 75 to 95 point carbon.
Of course there are other colors than these. As the
heat advances every few degrees the color keeps chang-
ing to a darker which indicates the tool is becoming
The hardening heat is about 1300 to 1400 degrees
Fahrenheit, or a cherry red. About 400 degrees Fah-
renheit relieves the strain in a hardened piece of steel;
600 degrees leaves a trace of hardness and is about right
In order to know the results of heating and cooling
steel one should take a small bar and cut nicks in it
with a chisel every half inch. The bar is then heated
from a white heat at the end to a very dark red some
inches back. It is then cooled in water, the pieces
broken and the grain noted. The heat that leaves the
steel file hard and a very fine grain is the hardening
heat of that steel. The hardening heat is a dark red.
The hotter it was when cooled the coarser the grain
shows on the end of the broken pieces.
In further demonstrating hardening and tempering
of tool steel, the making of a flat cold chisel will be
considered. The principles involved are about the same
in all hardening and tempering.
Making a Flat Cold Chisel— Spring Tempering— Welding Steel-
Case Hardening — Coloring Steel — Annealing — Making a
Scratch Awl— Making a Center Punch— Making a Hand Punch
— High Speed Steel — Annealing High Speed Steel.
Exercise No. 17 — Flat Cold Chisel.
A GOOD cold chisel is an indispensable tool in a
shop, and one that is very much abused. There-
fore, it should be made with the greatest care. In
the forging of a good chisel a piece of f-in. octagonal
tool steel, from 75 to 95 point carbon, is used. The
piece is cut six inches long. In doing this the bar may
be nicked with a chisel. The nicked part is then set
over the outer edge of the anvil. A chisel with a handle
is set on the nicks and given a good blow with a sledge
hammer, shearing the piece from the bar. See Figure
COLD FLAT CHISEL
109. This method of cutting is quite dangerous, so
care must be taken. Perhaps, a less dangerous method,
tho not so practical, is to heat the bar red and cut the
piece off with a hot chisel and sledge, or on the hardie,
if one has no helper. The end is then hammered.
See Figure No. 110.
When cut off and hammered round on one end, the
piece is caught with a fluted-lip pair of tongs that will
hold it firmly and a ring is placed on the ends of the
reins to bind them. The end is now heated in a well
burned fire, letting the heat soak in slowly, and not forc-
ing it with too much blast.
If the fire is lively hardly
any blast is used on the start.
The piece is brought to a
heat somewhat beyond what
is commonly called cherry
heat. It is then taken to the
anvil and drawn out square
with hard blows of the hammer, to a long taper, and
nearly to a point. This taper should be about If inches
long. See Figure No. 111.
72 PRACTICAL FORGING
Hammering must cease before the red heat has
left the steel. It is again heated and hammered on two
sides; in drawing the chisel bends edgewise. Do not
strike it on the edge; it will fracture the grain of the steel.
To straighten the blade, it should be hammered on the
__ flat side near the con-
C j *~— _ T~~""~") cave e ^ e - ^ ee Figure
Hammer her fO ' No. 112. This
F '£- 112 - stretches the metal
an d straightens the
C 3 '^ T". II blade. Care must be
Fig. ii3. taken in hammering
not to make the chisel
wider in one place than in another.
When finishing the chisel, it is hammered lightly
until the red is nearly but not quite gone. This ham-
mering packs the grain and makes it fine. The end
of the chisel is set on a hardie and cut half thru, so that
when it is hardened and tempered it may be broken
to note its grain and also require less grinding in sharpen-
ing. See Figure No. 113. The chisel is now heated
very slowly to a dark red and set in a dry place on the
forge to anneal. This annealing relieves the strain in
the tool due to hammering.
When the chisel is cold it is reheated to harden and
temper. Over-heating does not make the tool harder
when cooled in water, but increases its brittleness, so
care must be taken when heating. The heating must be
very slow, and to a dark red, 2\ inches long. The chisel
should be cooled as the heat is going up. A common
practice of heating the steel more than a cherry red and
holding it out of the forge until the heat goes down,
before dipping, is wrong. When properly heated the
chisel is held in a vertical position and dipped about
1§ inches into 16 gallons of salt and water, heated from
60° to 70° F. See Figure 114. The tool is kept in
motion when dipped. When cooled it is removed, and
the hardened part is rubbed bright with an emery stick
or sand paper. This is done so
that the temper colors may be seen.
Tempering increases the tool's elas-
ticity and strength, and -reduces
f^tv the brittleness. The temper color
" will show just a faint yellow
against the edge of the remaining
heat that was left in the tool after
In hardening the tool, it is
heated 2 J inches of its length and
1| inches is cooled in water to
harden. The remaining heat grad-
ually runs thruout the whole chisel
and may be noted by the faint yel-
low color on the bright part of
the tool traveling towards the cut-
ting end. This faint yellow temper
color, due to the heat and air, is
followed with darker colors; if let
run too much all of the hardness
would be taken out of the tool.
Four hundred and thirty degrees Fahrenheit would
be about a light straw color, leaving the steel very
hard. About 600° F. would be the darkest color,
nearly black. This is as hot as steel can be made and
still leave a trace of hardness. This temper is too soft
for a chisel but about right for springs; therefore, when
74 PRACTICAL FORGING
the very dark purple temper color covers the whole
bright part of the chisel the point is dipped in water.
The chisel is then set in a dry place on the forge to cool
slowly. The temper color must run to the end of the
chisel very slowly. The reason for this is that if the
temper color comes slow, the chisel is tempered farther
back from the point. The temper colors on the surface
of the bright steel are obtained by different degrees of
heat, as it travels from the remaining heat left in the
tool when the piece was hardened. The less heat al-
lowed to travel toward the end of chisel, the paler the
temper color and the harder the chisel; therefore, the
faint yellow color indicates that the steel is very hard.
The darker the temper color becomes the softer the tool.
The best chisels are those that are file proof. If,
after hardening and tempering a chisel, it cannot be
cut with a file, it is too hard and the temper must be
run out more. If the grain of steel is very fine when
broken the chisel had the proper heat when quenched,
but if it looks coarse the tool was too hot when cooled
and must be annealed, rehardened and tempered. A
little judgment will enable one to determine the proper
hardness for all tools of this character by noting these
temper colors. The above explanation in a general
way applies to the working of all carbon steel tools.
There are many kinds of springs that are hardened
and tempered. The methods of handling are about
the same with all. As an example, a piece of spring steel
5 by 1 by 1-16 inches is to be tempered. In doing this,
the piece is caught at one end with a pair of light tongs.
The steel is heated to a dark red and dipped into a can
TEMPERING STEEL 75
of sperm oil, or equal parts of lard and tallow. When
cool it is held over the fire until the surplus oil takes
fire and blazes off. It is redipped in the oil, and the oil
is burned three times in all. It is then partly cooled
in the oil and set on the forge until cool, when it is ready
for use. Steel is manufactured especially for springs.
It is called spring steel. It is made in a different way
from tool steel, by the open hearth process. It differs
in quality and cannot be absolutely guaranteed. The
steel is never free from all foreign elements which might
be detrimental to its quality.
Tempering Thin Pieces of Steel.
In hardening thin pieces of steel such as knives,
very thin milling cutters, etc., there is always difficulty
in preventing warping after hardening. Two heavy
surface plates, planed on one side, are used. On one
of these plates equal parts of tallow and lard are spread
\ inch thick. The knife is heated in a steam pipe with
one end plugged and having fire under and over it.
When an even red heat is reached, the knife is brought
out and set on the oil and at the same time the top
plate is set onto the knife until cool. This hardens the
blade and keeps it from springing. The knife is bright-
ened and the temper is drawn to a dark straw color by
holding it on a hot iron.
Very small pieces of steel are packed into an iron
pipe or box surrounded with charcoal. The whole is
then heated red and the pieces are dumped out and
cooled in water. To draw temper, they are put in an
iron ladle filled with lard oil that is heated on the fire.
76 PRACTICAL FORGING
All small pieces of tool and spring steel should be
welded with separate heats. A little practice and a
clean fire, with some good welding compound, are
necessary. In separate heat welding of flat steel, the flat
sides of the scarfs are put together instead of the beveled
Fig. 115. Welding Thin Steel.
ones. The scarfs are shown in Figure No. 115. The
method of riveting and splitting small pieces of fiat
steel to hold them together while taking the heat is not
to be recommended because after they are put together
in this manner the lap is double thick, and in raising
the heat there is always danger of over-heating each
side of the lap. Separate heats and a clean fire is the
best method to use to make a good weld, unless the steel
is heavy. In this case, it is split and forked as previously
The difference between wrought iron and tool
steel lies in the absence of carbon in the iron. Tool
steel can be hardened because it contains carbon, and
when heated and suddenly cooled becomes hard thru-
out. The surface of wrought iron or mild steel can be
carbonized and then made very hard. This is called
case hardening because about 1-16 inch or less of the
COLORING AND ANNEALING 77
outside of the bar is made hard while the center is soft.
There are several methods. One is to place the articles
in a tight cast iron box and surrounded with ground
bone before placing in a furnace. The box is then
brought to a high heat of about 1700 degrees Fahren-
heit. It is held at this heat for several hours and then
let cool. When cool, the pieces are reheated and dipped
in salt water to harden them or they may be cooled with
the first heating. By another method the pieces are
placed in an iron ladle with cyanide of potassium and
heated. Iron may be heated red and rolled in the
cyanide, then reheated and plunged into water. Care
must be taken in handling cyanide as even the fumes
Very bright pieces of soft steel can be case hard-
ened and colored at the same time. In doing this,
cyanide is heated in an iron box, and the steel articles
are put into it. When heated they are removed and
dipped into a solution of water and salt peter to cool
and harden them. This gives them a mottled effect
with many colors. A pint of salt peter to about four
gallons of water makes a solution strong enough. This
bath becomes poisoned from the cyanide. It should
be kept clean and labeled "Poison."
A piece of metal of any kind is said to be "an-
nealed" when made very soft. Steel should be annealed
before it is filed, drilled, or machined, as it is a very
hard metal to work when cold. The method of an-
nealing is first to heat the piece to a red heat. It is
then covered with warm, slacked lime so that the air will
not come in contact with it until cool. A simple way
to anneal, when in a hurry, is to heat the steel red, set-
ting it in a dry place on the forge until black. It is
then plunged into water quickly and brought out. This
operation is repeated until the piece is cool. Steel is
also annealed by heating the piece red and setting it
stock / f
Fig. 116 (above). Fig. 117 (below).
on the forge until cool. The slower steel is cooled,
the softer it becomes. Wrought iron and mild steel
forgings should always be annealed when used in work
where there is danger of breaking them.
Fig. 118. Scratch Awl.
Exercise No. 18 — Scratch-Awl.
This tool is used to scratch holes on the surface of
metal, and also to lay out shapes on metal. Figure
116 shows the dimensions of stock. The piece should
be carbon steel. One and one-half inches from one end,
the bar is drawn out until it measures 2\ inches in
length, as shown in Figure 117. It is then bent on an
angle as shown in Figure 118. This part is now heated
and hammered over the horn of the anvil to form the
Fig. 119. Scratch Awl Complete.
eye or ring. It is then twisted by catching one end
in the vise and twisting to the right. The point is next
drawn out as shown in Figure 119. The point is then
ground or filed and the awl tempered hard.
Exercise No. 19 — Center-Punch.
Figure 120 shows the size of stock and Figure 121
shows the center-punch completed. The top part is
first made, then the bottom is drawn out to a taper.
Fig. 120 (above). Center Punch. Fig. 121 (below).
In doing this, it is first drawn square, then eight sided
and finally rounded. The point is ground and the
punch is tempered to a purple color. For heavy center-
ing a larger size steel should be used.
Exercise No. 20 — Hand- Punch.
Hand-punches are made of various sizes of stock,
f in., f in. and f in., and are used for hot punching.
Figure 122 shows the size of stock for a punch that will
be useful in the school shop, and Figure 123 shows
the completed punch. It is made in the same manner
as described for the center-punch. This punch must not
be tempered. For punching square holes the punch
is drawn square, and the ends of all hand-punches are
made smaller than the hole to be punched.
Fig. 122. Stock for Punch.
Fig. 123. Completed Punch
High speed steels, due to their hardness and dura-
bility, retain their edge when cutting at extremely
It has only been of recent years that high speed
steels came into use. Before this time self-hardening
steels were made by Jessop and Mushet which were in
general use. They were tempered by heating to a dark
red and left to cool in the air. The high speed steels
of today are heated to 2,000° or 2,200° Fahr., or a
white heat bordering on a welding heat.
The chemical composition of these new steels are
only known by their makers. However, it is said that
they contain carbon, tungsten, chromium, manganese
and other elements.
The great advantage in using high speed steel, is
that a machine can be run three times as fast as one
HIGH SPEED STEEL 81
using carbon steel, without destroying the edge of the
tool. The output is therefore greater. Of course, in
order to force this steel to do a great amount of work
the machine tools should be constructed to stand heavy
strains. All kinds of tools are now being made from
high speed steel.
For light lathe work, high speed steel is used in
the adjustable tool holder. The most common tool for
doing heavy work is the round nose which is made from
various size steel.
High speed tool steel is sold under many brands.
The method of handling is about the same for all. How-
ever each manufacturer will give the method which is
best for his particular make of steel. In forging high
speed lathe tools, a furnace or clean fire with plenty of
coke is used. The steel is heated to a bright red heat,
holding the steel at this heat as nearly as possible when
hammering. Forging at a low heat is liable to cause
the steel to burst. When the tool is forged, it is laid
in a dry place on the forge to cool. When hardening,
the point of the tool is brought to a white welding heat,
about 2,100° Fahr., and this is noticeable by the appear-
ance of melted borax, forming on the nose. The tool is
now held in a compressed air blast, or dipped into
sperm, linseed or lard oil until cool.
Annealing High Speed Steel.
The process is the same as the one used for carbon
steel, heating to a red heat and covering the piece with
slacked lime until cold.
In cutting high speed tool steel, the bar may be
nicked with the emery wheel, then broken.
In working tool steel or iron of any weight the
blows of the hammer must be heavy. Light blows
stretch the outer part of the metal and not the center.
This is liable to fracture it. The blow must be heavy
so as to penetrate thru the bar. A trip hammer of
ordinary size run by a belt is a very economical tool for
the school shop. It is inexpensive and can be used to
advantage in drawing out large pieces of stock, especially
Every pupil should have more or less practice in
the handling of a trip or steam hammer.
II— ART SMITHING
Wrought Iron Work — Making a Wrought Iron Leaf — Making a
Volute Scroll— Grilles.
XT the present time great interest is being taken
j^\ in the teaching of art work in our public schools.
Every school of importance is doing something in the
way of giving the pupils a knowledge of art. One work-
ing in the school crafts should study art. There is no
craft work that one can do well without this training.
With art training one can see defects in his work much
quicker than without such training. In fact, it opens
up a new world of possibilities to the workman. The
more one is convinced of the value of thoro acquaint-
ance with the medium in which he is working, the
higher the class of work he produces.
All fine workmen in any craft have more or less
ability to draw. This not only gives them power to
transfer their conceptions to paper, but it also helps
them in the execution of the work. The iron- worker
in particular should practice free-hand drawing. It
enables him to form his material into proper shape. As
a general thing, forge work is fashioned into shape by
Wrought iron-work is one of the oldest of the
handicrafts. It was extensively practiced by the an-
cients and carried to a high degree of excellence, both
in execution and design. During the Middle Ages
84 ART SMITHING
and up to the seventeenth century some of the finest
examples were produced. A study of the older forms,
especially those of Medieval German production, shows
iron fashioned in keeping with its properties and with
the spirit of the craftsman. It is impossible to utilize
Fig. 1. Forged Leaf.
natural forms in wrought iron without convention.
Realistic iron flowers are inconsistent with the material
in which they are executed. They kill the strength
and destroy the character of the metal. This should
be learned early by one working in iron. When the
iron-worker of the past imitated nature too closely in
leaf and flower, he failed as a designer and his work dete-
riorated. Iron as a crude metal must be fashioned into
shapes that are suitable and practical for the material.
For instance, it readily allows itself to be worked into
graceful curved forms which can be used to advantage
FORGING A LEAF
in grille work. It may be surface-decorated by using
chasing tools. This may be done on hot or cold metal,
depending upon the depth wanted. Iron may also be
punctured with openings thru the metal which give
the play of light and shadow that is very pleasing.
Grotesque figures and an endless variety of leaf forms
may also be worked in iron. These should be conven-
tionalized. Embossed or repousse work may be done
to advantage. In doing this the metal while hot is
hammered on the end grain of elm wood and on forms
made from iron. When cold it is hammered on lead,
and steel tools are used to sharpen up the detail.
In Figure 1 is shown a leaf made from Number 16
sheet steel and Figure 2 shows a pattern of the same
leaf. In making a leaf of this kind, a full-size drawing
is made just as it should look when modeled. From
this drawing a pattern is developed as the leaf would
look when in the flat. It is impossible to lay it out
accurately. The method used is to find the stretch
out of the leaf by measuring along its greatest length.
Fig. 3. Cutting Tool.
This can be done by using a pair of dividers. The
length found is then laid off on the metal. The widest
parts of the leaf are then measured and laid on the
metal. Having the length and width, the rest can be
sketched in. The leaf is now cut out with a narrow
cold chisel that can be made to follow the curved line.
This cutting should be done while the metal is cold.
Fig. 4. Modeling Hammer.
The leaf shown in the illustration has been fluted with
a steel hand-tool. In doing this a tool as shown in
Figure 3 is used. This tool is made smooth, rounded
at the base like an ordinary fuller and then hardened.
The fluting is also done while the metal is cold. Lines
WELDING LEAVES 87
are marked on the metal with a slate pencil and then
sunken with the tool and hammer. In modeling the
leaf a hammer like the one shown in Figure 4 is used.
It is called the modeling hammer. This hammer has
a ball on one end and a pein on the other, both of which
are made very smooth and without sharp corners.
These hammers are made in various sizes. In model-
ling the leaf it is heated and hammered on the back side
Fig. 5. Grille with Leaf.
with the ball of the hammer, using the elm block to
hammer on. The ends of the lobes are then formed
to give the whole a decorative effect. These leaves
are generally used in grille work and are welded into
position. In Figure 5 is shown part of a grille with a
similar leaf welded on. In welding leaves to the mem-
bers of grille work the bottom part of the leaf is formed
around the bar; caught with a pair of tongs, it is heated,
using a flux when hot. It is then taken to the
anvil and welded. A small collar is finally welded in
front of the leaf as shown in the illustration.
The leaves shown in the illustrations are made to
cover the grille on but one side. If a grille is to be seen
from both sides when in place, the leaves are cut out
symmetrically and then bent and modeled to fit over
the top and sides of the bars
so that they appear fin-
ished from both sides. Fig-
ure 6 shows the pattern of
such a leaf.
The following exercises
will be of a simple nature
to give the beginner an
idea of the tools and pro-
cesses used in producing
this kind of work by hand.
The writer does not claim
that the following method
is the only one to be used
in doing this work. There
are many other ways to
execute these exercises and
one should use his own in-
genuity in designing and
executing individual pieces.
It is hoped that pupils will
be encouraged to originate
work out in this interest-
Fig. 6. Pattern of Leaf.
designs of their own to
The tools used in making these exercises will be
the ordinary forge shop tools that can be made, and
will be described later on, as they are needed.
Exercise No. 1.
Volute Scroll. This exercise is given in order to
familiarize one with the bending of curved forms and
also to train the hand and eye in doing freehand work.
No metal lends itself more readily to the bending of
Fig. 7. Volute Scrolls.
curves than wrought iron. The scroll is an important
element in the designing of iron doors, window grilles,
etc. In bending, the scroll must not have kinks or
flat places, but a gradual curve. If it is desired to sug-
gest strength, the scroll is coiled tightly; or if lightness
of effect is desired, it is coiled loosely. In making a scroll
to fit some particular place a drawing is made with
chalk on a surface plate. The scroll is then measured
along the line with a string to find its length. In
Figure 7 are shown drawings of typical scrolls. The
one at A shows too much space between the coils. The
scroll at B is top-heavy owing to the coils being equal
in size. The one at C has a continuous curve with
unequal coils which balance better. In bending a
scroll from a flat piece of stock, as shown in Figure 8,
the end is heated and hammered on the corners to make
it round at one end. It is then bent over the outer
t . ,. edge of the anvil, as
shown in Figure 9A
and B, to form the
eye. It is then heated
for a considerable
part of its length and
rolled up as shown at
C. If any kinks get
into the bar they can
be rectified by hammering on the horn. This is the
method used in forming a scroll with the hammer. In
heating the bar to be rolled into scroll form, it must not
be heated to a white heat. Scrolls are also bent over
forms when a great number are wanted. Heavy scrolls
are formed by bending in a bending fork that fits
into a square hole in the anvil. (See fork in Figure
10.) A monkey wrench is used to bend the bar when
in the fork.
In Figure 1 1 and Fig-
ure .12 are shown grilles
which are made from
flat stock. The scrolls
in this case were made
after the bars had been
welded in place. They
could be made first and
then riveted or fast-
ened with iron bands,
but welding of course makes a better job.
In Figure 13 is shown a drawing for a welded scroll.
Notice the dotted line at A. This is where the weld
is made. At B, the pieces are shown in position to be
Fig. 10. Bending Fork.
Fig. 11. Grille.
welded by the separate heat method. In doing this
the length is measured on the drawing with a string,
and the three pieces cut. The two short ones are
upset; and one is laid on top of the other; then heated
and welded at the same time they are scarfed. The
long piece is upset and welded to the short one. They
are then formed.
Fig. 12. Grille.
Twisting — Braiding — Making a Fire Shovel.
Exercise No. 2.
WISTING. A piece of one-half inch square stock,
nine inches long, is heated its entire length, one end
caught in a vise and with a monkey wrench or heavy
pair of tongs on the other, it is twisted to the right.
If the heat is an even one and not too hot, the spacing
of the twist will be uniform. In case one part twists
faster than another, a little water is used to cool that
part. The beauty of twisted work depends on having
the spacing uniform between the turns. (See Figure 14.)
Flat stock can also be twisted in this manner. To
straighten twisted work, it is heated red, set on the end
grain of elm wood and hammered with a wooden mallet.
The mallet used in this work should be made from
hickory. For heavy striking a little band of iron can be
put on the mallet a half-inch from one end, so that
the mallet will not split. The block on which to
straighten the iron should be about ten inches in diam-
eter and three feet high. A short block about eight
94 ART SMITHING
inches wide and twelve inches long may be set into the
coal box, having coal under and around it to hold it in
place. This makes a very handy block on which to
bump up light pieces of metal or to straighten metal.
Exercise No. 3.
Figure 15 shows the dimensions of stock for a twisted
poker-handle. The four i-inch rods are upset on one end
until they measure six inches. They are then welded
~1 f~_ ->>|C0
together on this end. This is done by first twisting
a strong binding wire around the rods to keep them in
place while taking the heat. (See Figure 16.) In
welding, they are welded directly on the ends and
scarfed as shown in Figure 15.
Notice that the scarf is made so that the point of
the scarf on the other piece will come onto a one-quarter
inch rod and not between the two. The scarf must
not be hammered farther back from the ends than 4-inch.
Fig. 17. Poker Handles.
The f-inch bar is now upset on one end and scarfed.
The two parts are then welded, smoothing the weld
with the hand hammer. The end of the handle is
welded directly at the ends of the rods. The entire
handle is heated uniformly, caught in a vise and twisted
to the right. If any part twists faster than another,
that part is cooled with water dropped from a hole in
the bottom of a tin cup. In twisting the handle, the
| bar is caught in the vise. A strong pair of tongs are
used on the end of the handle to twist it, or the end of
Fig. 18. Shovel.
the handle can be caught with a monkey wrench. The
point of the poker is drawn to a square point and then
flattened. In making pokers or shovels, the stock may
be either round or square. In Figure 17 are shown
some handles that are suitable for pokers or shovels.
ctun cf ftoac/le
Fig. 19. Shovel Handle.
A method of braiding the last handle shown in the il-
lustration is to weld four 3-16-in. rods of either round
or square stock to a piece of f-inch round stock. Two
of the rods are then bent over at right angles to the one-
half inch piece. The others are bent over them, and
so on until finished. The four rods are then welded
at the top and a ring turned. The last illustration
shows the method of bending the rods.
Exercise No. 4.
Shovel. — Figure 18 shows the dimensions and form
of the exercise. In making the handle, f-in. square
stock is used. The piece is cut 25 inches long. On
one end the piece is upset considerably in order to get
a good sized head. Five inches from the end of the head
a line is cut on four sides with a chisel. This part is
then hammered with a ball hammer while hot to give
it a rough texture as shown in Figure 19. The other
end of the handle is upset a little, bent on an angle and
flattened, letting it get as wide as it will.
98 ART SMITHING
The development of the pattern for the shovel
blade is shown in Figure 20. At the top is shown a
side and end elevation of the shovel. The dimensions
should be drawn full size. The shapes of the sides
and of the ends are found by measuring from the eleva-
tion. The pattern should be made from sheet iron and
kept for future use.
In forming the shovel, the sides are first bent up
by using the vise and heel of the anvil. This forming
must be done while the metal is cold. The end of the
shovel may be bent by hammering it over a heavy,
flat piece of iron. The corners are hammered around
the sides by catching the shovel in the vise. They
are fastened by drilling holes thru both pieces and rivet-
ing them, using a rivet set to finish the rivets. In
fastening the handle to the blade or shovel, three Num-
ber 10 round-head rivets are used. If desired, the
handle can be made from larger stock, also increasing
the size and the thickness of the shovel.
Fig. 21. Door Latch.
Making a Door-latch — Making a Hinge — Making a Candle-stick.
Exercise No. 5.
DOOR LATCH.— In Figure 21 is shown a latch for a
double door. In Figure 22 are shown the dimen-
sions of the two plates and the bar latch. In making
the plates, a piece of soft steel, 2 in. wide and §-in.
thick is used. The design is sketched on the metal
and five 9-32-in. holes are drilled in each plate where
the square holes come in the design. The plates are
then heated and a square punch is used to drift out the
holes. The outside edges are then cut. The plate is
heated and with a square punch the metal is set down
to give it the interlaced effect as shown in Figure 23.
The plates are now filed to straighten the square
holes, and the holes on the corners for screws are drilled.
Figure 24 represents the catch, which can be made as
shown, and the knob which is worked out on the end of
a rod, as shown in Figure 25. It is hammered on the
outer edge of the anvil. After each blow it is turned
until finished. Then it is cut off and the tenon is filed.
The guard shown in Figure 26 is cut from a flat piece
as represented. The bar is made from \ by 3-16-in.
stock, drilled, and a slot is sawed for the spring. The
spring is about \ by 3-32-in. and can be made from spring
Figure 27 represents a hinge that can be made from
f-in. soft steel. After the design is sketched with a
slate pencil on the metal, the open parts are drilled
and cut out. The outside is next cut with a chisel and
the edges are filed smooth. The eye or joint of the
hinge is formed without welding, by hammering it
around an eye pin of the desired size. The prongs or
projections to form the knuckle are filed so that they
fit into one another. The interlacing is done with a
square end punch in the same manner as explained for
the latch. A great variety of designs of this kind can
be made to advantage in iron. A drawing of a simple
strap hinge is shown in Figure 28. The part of the strap
at A on the drawing is made greater in length than width
for appearance. This gives the strap apparent strength
and emphasizes its length.
The hinge can be made any length desired but should
be carefully proportioned; the eye can be made loose
or welded. In welding a hinge-eye the lap should al-
ways be on the back. Note the drawing of the eye
ready for welding in Figure 29. In making hinges,
the making of the eye is always the first operation. A
welded eye makes the strongest hinge; but it can be
made with a loose eye if desired. In bending and
finishing; the eye, an eye-pin should be used to true the
hole. An eye-pin is a piece of round steel of the desired
size drawn tapering on each end so that it can be driven
thru a hole. The projections that form the joint for
a loose eye hinge should be cut out before the eye is
made. If the stock is light, the joint in either a. loose or
a welded hinge can be filed or sawed after the eye is
turned. In a heavy eye the projections are laid off
ami marked on the metal while flat. The bar is then
heated and split lengthwise from one side, starting
Fig. 3D. Candle-stick.
|-inch from the end, and cutting long enough to make
the eye. The eye is then formed and welded, and pieces
are cut out leaving alternating projections which can
be filed to fit.
Exercise No. 6.
Exercise No. 6 • is a candle-stick. The reproduc-
tion, Figure 30, shows the finished piece. The drawing,
— *^-t— . ,-t
Figure 31, at A, gives the dimensions; at B, is shown
the pattern of the bottom in the flat. The bottom is
cut from a sheet of soft steel, using a narrow cold chisel.
The edge is then filed and bent up about one-quarter of
an inch. In doing so, it is hammered over a round
block or iron which fits into the square hole of the an-
vil. See Figure 32. The handle is formed by heating
it, and hammering it over the horn of the anvil. In
making the socket to hold the candle as shown at C,
Figure 31, the piece is cut from number 20 soft steel.
At D, is illustrated the stock cut ready for forming.
In cutting this piece, the shape is sketched with a
slate pencil on the metal. Five holes are now drilled,
the center hole, 5-32 in. in diameter and four 3-16-in.
holes at the base of leaves. A narrow cold chisel is
then used which will cut on a curved line. The edges
of the pieces are then filed; the piece is heated and ham-
mered on the elm block to raise it. In raising the socket,
it is heated in the center, set over a depression in the
block and hammered. This brings the wings or leaves
up. They are brought up until they overlap one another,
the leaves forming a square box. The whole piece is
then heated, placed on the end of a f-in. round bar,
setting the whole into a swage, and the leaves are
fitted around the bar by hammering. The socket is
then riveted in place. A rivet is put in the end of the
handle to hold it in place. The candle-stick is now
smoothed with a file and smoked over the fire, then oiled.
Wrought Iron Lantern.
Making a Drawei Pull — Chasing — Making a Door-knocker —
Repousse — Perforated Decoration.
Exercise No. 7.
DRAWER pulls can be of one part, the handle
being fastened directly to the drawer, or they
may be of two parts, the handle and plate. The handle
can be made stationary on the plate or movable. In
Figure 33 are shown some hinges, drawer pulls and
key escutcheons. The open work is cut out while the
stock is hot, or if light stock is used, it may be drilled,
cut and filed while the plate is cold.
The stock used in making a plate for a pull, some-
what like those illustrated, is represented in Figure
34. After the plate is cut to size, which is done cold
with a hand chisel, the outside surface is hammered
while hot with a ball hammer, drawing the plate a
little thinner near the edge. This hammering gives
the surface a rough texture. The edges are now ground
or filed to shape and the holes are drilled as shown in
the drawing. The round holes are for screws to fasten
the pull, and the square holes are to fasten lugs, on
which the handle is to swing. The lugs are shown in
Figure 35. The tenon can be filed, the top rounded,
the holes drilled, and the lugs riveted into the plate.
When riveting the lugs, they are caught in a vise, the
plate set on and the tenons are riveted tight into the
holes. The square holes in the plate should be counter-
sunk a little on the back before the lugs are riveted.
The handle is a movable one, and the drawing is
shown in Figure 36. The different steps in making the
handle are represented in Figure 37. When the stock,
which should be soft steel, is cut, the ends are heated
and drawn out tapering to 3-16 inch at the end. One-
and-a-half inches from each end of the bar is marked
with a center punch. The ends are now bent over
j inch, then the bar is bent at the center marks. When
the handle is formed to fit the plate it is smoothed with a
file. If desired, a line can be chased on the handle and
around the edge of plate. In doing this a short, light
chisel is used. After lines are traced on the plate with
a slate pencil the chisel is set on the line and struck with
a light hammer; at the same time it is drawn towards-
the worker with the lead corner of the cutting edge
directly on and above the line.
The chisel should receive rapid, light blows and
be continually moved toward the workman. The lead
corner of the chisel should be guided onto the line
while the other corner is doing the cutting. See Figure
38, a rather large sized drawing of the cutting edge of
the'chisel. When the lines are chased with the chisel,
they should be gone over again with quite hard blows
of the hammer, forcing the chisel down to make the
lines quite pronounced.
To put the handle in place on the plate, it is heated
and sprung into the holes of the lugs. The last thing
to do in finishing all work of this kind is to heat it to
a dark red. All scale and dirt is then scraped off;
when cool, some oil is put on. For this kind of work,
machine oil is good The reason it is heated to a dark,
even red heat is that when cool the handle and the
plate will have the same color and texture.
Fi K . 39.
Exercise No. 8.
In Figure 39 are shown some hinges, latches and
door knockers. Figure 40 is a drawing of a simple
knocker. The plate is cut out and the line around the
edge is chased with a tool. The chasing tool is simply
a cold chisel ground to a short bevel and rounded some-
what like a fuller, as shown in Figure 41. A short
— *J Door Knocker?
chisel is used for cold work and a longer one for hot
work. The chasing can be done while the metal is cold.
If it is to be very deep or wide the plate is heated and
a longer chisel is used. The lug at Figure 42 is made
and riveted into the plate. The top of the hammer is
filed to straddle it. A hole is then drilled and a rivet
put thru. Holes are drilled around the edge of the plate
for screws or nails.
In making the hammer a piece of f-inch square,
soft steel is used. It is upset on one end to get the
stock large enough for the bottom of the hammer. The
bar is then drawn out on the horn as shown at Figure
43. The top part is formed as shown at Figure 44.
Lines are chased on the front of hammer as shown in
the drawing; this can be done after it is formed. If
the lines are to be very deep it should be done while
the' piece is straight and heated.
There is ample room for design in the making of
door knockers, both for outside and inside doors of
dwellings. Knocker plates for doors on the inside of
dwellings can be elaborated by a combination of re-
pousse, chasing and perforated decoration which give
a variety of light and shadow. Perforated plates
be backed up with colored leather or cloth which g
a very pleasing contrast to the metal.
In Figure 45 is
shown an interior
door knocker. It
is backed up with
The plates are
made of |-in. thick,
soft steel. After the
plates are cut out,
the openings are
marked with a slate
pencil and gone
over with a short
cold chisel to mark
them. The plate is
then heated, and
the part enclosed
by the chisel line
is cut out. A very
narrow chisel, 12
in. long, is used to
do the cutting. The
cutting is all done
from the outside.
This gives the edge
a slight bevel. The
edges of open
places are trued up
with a file. The openings must not be filed too
exact and smooth. The most essential thing to look
after is form; the work looks best when it shows
handwork and is not mechanical.
Handwork is most in keeping with the design and the
material. The lines on the plate are chased with a
narrow chisel and the foliated form bumped out from
the back by hammering on the end grain of the elm
block. The hammer that does the knocking is hinged
on the top plate so that the bottom part moves out and
in when knocking. Very thin red leather is glued on
the back of the plate with fish glue. The diameter of
the top plate is 4|-in., the bottom 2j-in., and the hammer
is 6|-in. long.
A good method of working out ideas for pieces of
this character is to make numerous rough sketches on
paper with a lead pencil, making one line over another
without erasing. When one gets what he thinks is good
it is redrawn and perfected. It may then be worked
in the material.
At Figure 46 is shown a door knocker hinged at
the top. The plate is one piece. At Figure 47 are
shown the dimensions of the plate. After the shape of
the plate is sketched on the metal, the lines are traced
with a chisel. The open work is then cut out,, and the
outside of the plate is cut and filed. The center leaf
at the top of the plate is indicated by forcing the metal
down along the top edge of the leaf with a punch, also
at the bottom to form the interlace. The plate should
be hot when this is done. The hammer shown in Figure
48 should be forged from |-in. square, soft steel. The
lug shown on the drawing is to^be made and riveted
into the top'of the plate. The hammer is then placed
over the lug, and the lug is drilled to conform to the
drilled holes in the hammer.
The chasing on the plate and hammer is done with
a chisel as previously explained. A gauge should be
made from a piece of steel to scratch the guide lines on
the plate for the chasing as shown in Figure 48. These
lines are then cut with the chisel.
Making a Hat and Coat Hook — A Fuller — Jump Welding — Making
a Wall Hook.
Exercise No. 9.
FIGURE 49 represents a hat-and-coat hook. In the
making of this piece, the plate should be made from
No. 14 soft steel. The dimensions are shown in Figure
I it:, -li). Hat and Cunt Hook.
50. The shape of the plate can be drawn on heavy paper,
which is afterward cut out and used as a pattern when
making the plate from metal. After the plate is cut
out with a cold chisel, it is ground or filed on the edges.
The holes are next drilled, and the lines are cut on the
surface as shown in the drawing. In cutting the lines,
jjh^Z^- jf Section of leaf
a short, narrow cold chisel is used for chasing in the
same manner as. previously described. The lines
on the leaf should be made quite deep. A fuller is
shown in Figure 50, which is used to make the lines
still deeper. The fuller should have the edge smooth,
and without sharp corners. The plate should be
clamped on to a surface plate while making the lines.
HAT AND COAT HOOK
The fuller is then set on the cut lines and struck with
the hand hammer, chasing the tool to the ends of the
lines. This work can, also, be done to advantage by
heating the plate and having a helper hold it on the an-
vil while fullering the lines. When all the lines are
made, the leaf is heated, set on the elm block and ham-
mered on the back to raise the end of the lobes as shown
in the illustration.
The hook is made from iron. Figure 51 represents
the dimensions of stock for the hook. The lug is welded
on, and the ends of the bar are rounded ready to be
formed. After the stock is cut, it is upset six inches from
one end to enlarge it so that the lug can be welded on.
The stock from which the lug is made is cut 3| inches
long, upset on end, and split in the vise J inch deep as
shown at Figure 52. The split end should be formed
as shown. In welding, separate heats are taken, and
the lug is jumped onto the bar as shown in Figure 53.
The first blows are struck directly on the end of the lug,
then the lips are welded. Figure 51 shows the length
of the piece before the knobs are formed. In making
the knobs at the end, they should be upset as shown in
Figure 54. They are then hammered as shown, and
finally rounded. The lug is next cut the proper length,
and a shoulder is filed at the end. The chased lines
are now cut on the front side. In forming the piece,
it is heated and hammered over the horn of the anvil,
starting to bend at the end first, and working toward
the center. In bending anything of this kind, always
start at one end, and finish as you work toward the other
end. See the drawing of the bent hook at Figure 55.
The end of the lug is next heated and caught in a vise,
the plate is set on and riveted tightly. The work is
smoothed with a file, heated to darken it, and oiled.
Exercise No. 10.
A wall hook, suitable to hang a bird cage or fern
dish, is shown in Figure 56. In Figure 57 are shown the
length and size of stock, and the piece ready to form.
In making the ball, the piece is shouldered at one end
by hammering it on the outer edge of the anvil as shown
in Figure 58. It is then hammered on the corner, to
make it round. The other end is drawn to a square
point, and is then flattened as shown in Figure 59,
letting it become as wide as it will. This flat end is then
veined suggesting a leaf form. In doing this, a long
chisel, made round somewhat like a fuller, is used.
The piece is heated, and a sunken line is made with the
chisel, as shown by the drawing of the leaf end. The
piece is then heated, and the leaf end is formed. The
holes should now be drilled. The balance of the hook
is heated and formed by hammering it over the horn of
Making a Toasting-fork — Inlaying.
Exercise No. 11.
AVERY interesting and useful article to make
is a toasting fork. The stock used can be spring
steel. A disadvantage in using this steel is that it is
too hard to work out a design on the handle. If one
can weld quite well, the fork should have the handle
made of soft steel and the balance of carbon steel. In
doing this, the weld is the first thing to do while the stock
is straight and full size. If one without much welding
experience is to make the fork, it should' be made of
\~ ■Stock ' doftSteef. // fx%" |
Fig. 60. Stock for Toasting Fork.
soft steel, and when finished the prongs should be case
hardened. In making a fork of this kind, a piece of
soft steel as shown in the drawing in Figure 60 is used.
On one end, the stock is enlarged a little, by upsetting
for a distance of five or six inches. This end is to be used
for the handle. The other end of the bar is then heated,
and a hole is punched lf-in. from the end. The piece
should then look somewhat like the drawing at A, Fig-
ure 61. In drawing out, the shoulder is hammered
as shown at B, Figure 61. The shank (the part between
the handle and the shoulder) is next drawn out. It
should be a scant j-in. thick so as to finish to the di-
mensions given in Figure 60. Care must be taken to
avoid getting too much stock in the shank. It is a very
~ Upset J jHZ of*
easy matter to get too much stock between the handle
and the shoulder which, when drawn out, is too long.
The prongs are roughly made by cutting the stock out
as shown by the dotted lines in Figure 61. When this
is done the prongs are hammered out to the correct
size, allowing for finishing.
In Figure 62 are shown reproductions of similar
forks. The line shown running around the rectangular
open parts is inlaid copper. A channel is sunken and
the copper driven into it. In making the handle, the
three oblong holes are punched while hot with a punch
about 3-16 in. by | in. at the end, making a series of
punchings to cut out the holes. The holes should be
small enough so that they may be finished to size with
a file. Notice that the openings are not of the same
size; but two short ones, with a longer one in the center,
give variety. Notice, also, that the shape of the
handle is in keeping with the long, slim shank and the
slender, two-tine fork at the end.
Toasting Forks, Spoon and Cake Turner.
After the handle is shaped, and the holes are punched,
including the one at the top' to hang the fork by, the line
to receive the copper is marked. (See Figure 63.)
The marking should be done with a scratch awl. The
line is then cut with a small chisel. This cutting should
be quite deep and exact. This is important if the work
is to be true and straight. All of the marking should
be done while the handle is cold. It is now heated and
taken to the anvil. A small punch, as represented in
Figure 63, is then set onto the cut line and given a blow
with the hammer, sinking the punch about 1-16 of an
inch. One-half of the punch is now raised up and out
of the channel. While it is directly on the chased line,
it is given another blow with the hammer and so on
until the end is reached. The particular thing to watch
is to have the lead corner of punch directly on the chased
guide line, while the other edge of the punch is in the
channel in order to keep the finished line straight. Keep
the punch in good order, straight and square at the end.
The punch should not have much taper and should not
be used after the red heat leaves the metal. After
the entire line has been sunken 1-16 in. deep, the handle
is reheated and the line is sunken perhaps f in. deep.
128 ART SMITHING
A wider punch is now used in the long channel to
straighten it and make it deeper. The wide punch
should have no taper and should be a scant 3-32 in.
thick so that the line will be about 3-32 in. wide. If
any part of the channel should be too wide, the handle
should be hammered on the edge with a light hammer
to close the channel a little. When the channel is
Fig. 64. File.
finished, the handle should be filed fiat on the channel
side. This will give one a better view of the straight-
ness of the channel.
In case the channel is not as straight as it should
be, a small flat file is heated and bent at the end and
rehardened. (See Figure 64.) This file is used to
straighten up the edges of the channel. A small cold
Fig. 65. Cross Section of Fork Handle
chisel can also be used for this purpose. The channel
must be straight along the top edge. When the channel
is well straightened, strips of copper are filed to fit the
channel, letting them project above the channel about
3-32 of an inch and also having each piece a little short
in length. When the pieces are all in place, the handle
is set on the anvil and with a heavy hammer they are
driven down forcing the copper to fill the whole of the
channel. The entire handle is filed to the dimensions
given in Figure 63.
Notice Figure 65 which shows a sectional drawing
of the handle, with the copper in place and a chased line
running along between copper and steel. A channel
without copper is shown at the right of the illustration.
Wrought Iron Lamp.
Making a Lantern — Making a Wall-lamp.
Exercise No. 12.
THE lantern shown in Figure 66 consists of four
sides which are fastened together with angles and
rivets. The top is made from four pieces, with angles
Fig. 66. Lantern.
also riveted to them. The stock is cut with a pair
of snip shears, No. 06§. (See Figure 67.) The sides
must be cut to the same size or there will be trouble
in putting them together. After they are cut, the open
work is marked with a slate pencil. Holes are drilled
in the corners of each opening, and they are cut out
3nijO -Shears 06%.
with a sharp chisel. The edges are filed and all holes
are drilled for No. 12 rivets. At Figure 68 is a drawing,
with dimensions of one of the sides as it should be in
the flat. Notice the section of the sheet bent at the
top for the roof and at the bottom to hold the glass.
The glass is held in position at the top with a little strip
of copper, with a rivet to hold it. The glass is set into
the groove at the bottom, and the copper cleat is bent
over the top of the glass. The copper cleat should be
l by f in., made from No, 26 soft copper. The bottom
of the sheet is first bent at right angles, then a flat piece
3-16 in. thick is laid on the inside of the sheet, and the
whole is placed on the anvil. The end of the sheet is
now hammered over the 3-16-in. piece with a mallet
to make the pocket to hold the glass. All of the holes
for rivets to fasten the angles should be countersunk
• Fig. 70.
a little on the inside. The angles are made from one
inch wide No. 20 hoop iron. They are formed by plac-
ing them between two pieces of flat iron as shown in Fig-
ure 69, and holding the whole in a vise while hammering
with a wood mallet.
In fastening the angles to the sides, the heads of
the rivets are on the outside, and the inside is smooth.
In doing this, the heads of the rivets are held in a rivet
set while hammering on the inside.
The rivet set is caught in a vise as shown in Figure
70. A rivet set is a piece of steel with the shape of a
rivet head sunken into one end. In making this, a
iffi \l i-y ftp ca t °ff f or hole,
punch is filed the shape of a rivet head and is then driven
into the end of a hot piece of steel. In Figure 71 is
shown a simple method of developing a pattern of one
section for the top of a lantern. A-B of the pattern is
first drawn. The length of X-B of the elevation is the
length of C-D of the pattern. Lines are then drawn
from C to A and B. The point of each section at the
top is cut off so that when the four pieces are riveted
to the angles there will be a 7-16-in. hole thru the top.
(See Figure 72.) In this hole is put a piece of |-in.
steam pipe with a lock nut on the top and another on
the bottom to hold it in place. (See Figure 73.) The
pipe is for the socket to screw onto under the top, and
also for the wire to come thru. The loop at the top is
to suspend the lantern by. It is made of f by |-in.
stock, 6 inches long. Two No. 10 rivets are put in each
end to fasten it to the roof. The lamp is to hang by a
chain suspended from the ceiling. In doing this a ceil-
TAread for '/£
== ^ 5 *^ ZX'ak « cut ■SHi'Dia,
ing cap is necessary. This may be a piece of -|-in. steam
pipe threaded on one end and a hook made on the other.
(See drawing, Figure 74.) A cast iron piece is screwed on
the end of the pipe and is then fastened to the ceiling by
three screws, which supports the chain and lamp. The
FINISHING LAMP 137
wires go thru the pipe and connect with other wires in
the ceiling. (See drawing of the casting, Figure 75.)
When the lamp is wired and the casting is fastened to
the ceiling, it must be covered with something to hide
the wires and its rough appearance. In Figure 76 is
shown a drawing for a cap to cover the casting and wir-
ing. The cap has a hole in the center for the pipe to
pass thru, leaving it movable on the pipe. A collar of
cast iron, with a set screw in the side, is to go under
the cap and the screw tightened when the cap is against
the ceiling. (See drawing of the collar, Figure 77.)
In making the cap, it is heated and hammered over a
hole in the swage block. A hammer with a large-sized,
rounded face is used. The disk is driven into the hole
until it becomes bowl-shaped and the right height.
'."" v - ■■■
At Figure 78 is represented a lamp that is to be
fastened to the side of the wall, instead of hanging from
the ceiling with a chain. The light is inverted, the lamp
being open at the top and closed at the bottom.
The stock used in the construction of the lamp is
very heavy, No. 14 soft steel being used. The angle
plates on the corners are made from No. 20 soft steel.
The plate that is on the back of the lamp has a cup-
shaped pocket hammered into it to cover the wiring
when the lamp is in place, and on which the light socket
In Figure 79 is shown a cross-section of the back
plate, with the depression and socket in place.
This kind of lamp is very simple to make and can
be made in various shapes and sizes. The back of the
lamp can be made of wood instead of metal, if desired.
Wrought Iron Table Lamps.
Making a Portable Lamp.
IN Figure 80 is represented a portable lamp. This
kind of lamp can be made in various sizes with one
light. The lamp shown in the illustration, consists of
two parts; the standard, and the shade, which can be
removed. The standard consists of a box-shaped
bottom, with a pipe screwed into it for the upright
piece. The arms that the shade rests on, are separate
and are held in position by the lamp socket, which is
screwed down on them. The strips running over the
bottom of the base and up the pipe are riveted in place
to support the pipe. This gives the whole standard a
more substantial appearance, and relieves the plain
In making a very simple lamp of this character,
we may eliminate the strips running up the pipe, and
make the bottom • with a round pipe screwed into it.
Of course a square standard would be more in keeping
MAKING LAMP BASE
with the square base and shade. In making the
box-shaped base, soft steel should be used. Figure 81
shows the dimensions of the fiat stock. The plate is
heated and an inch of the edge is bent over the outer
edge of the anvil, as shown in Figure 82. The outer
edges of the plate can be bent over the end of the anvil
as shown in Figure 83. When all the edges are bent
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the piece will look somewhat as in Figure 84, The cor-
ners are now ground off, and the bottom is made level.
A hole is drilled in the center and threaded for a f-in.
steam pipe. Two inches from the center hole, another
hole is drilled and tapped for a J-in. or f-in. rubber
bushing. In wiring the lamp, the cord should enter
thru the bushing from the outside, and under and up thru
the pipe to the socket. The drawing for the pipe is
shown at Figure 85, also a bushing which is brazed into
the top of the pipe and threaded for a f-in. pipe. The
f-in. steam pipe and bushing are shown in position in
the illustration at one end of the pipe. This small pipe
is for the lamp socket to be screwed onto. The other
end of the large pipe is to be threaded and screwed into
the base. The pipe should be screwed into the base
far enough, so that the threads will not be exposed to the
outside and the surplus cut off. The pipe when screwed
tight should be brazed to the base. In doing this, the
borax and spelter should be applied to the under side,
after the base is well heated, as the brass will discolor
the iron on the top side. When the pipe is brazed it
should be made to stand vertical.
In Figure 86 is shown the lamp standard with the
shade support in position. The support has a hole in
the center to fit the |-in. steam pipe at the top of the
standard. When the support is in place another f-in.
hole is drilled thru it into the pipe. A pin is driven into
the hole so that the support cannot be moved around.
The lamp socket when screwed down makes the support
tight. In making the support the center part is cut
from a plate 3-16 in. by 4 by 4 in. and 3-16 in. round
soft steel bars are welded on for the arms. In Figure
jLamp •ska da
ip ■s ftada
87 is shown the drawing which does not need explanation.
The drawing for the pattern is shown at Figure 88 and the
pattern for one section at Figure 89. In developing
the pattern which is very simple the top drawing, Figure
88, represents the shade which should be drawn full size.
The length from A to B is then laid off on the center line
of the pattern, which in this case measures 1\ in. The
top and bottom of shade shows a return of f in. which
should be added to the length of the pattern. The
width of the top and bottom of the shade is then drawn,
also diagonal lines which will complete the pattern.
The edge view of the pattern is shown at C. The
|-in. bend at the top is made so that the cap can be
riveted on. The one at the bottom is to receive the
glass. This was explained on a previous page in de-
scribing the making of a hall lantern. In assembling
the shade, corner angles are used to fasten the sections
together, which was also explained for the hall lantern.
The top cap is put on last and fastened with rivets.
Annealing high speed steel, 81
Anvil, construction of, 10
how to fasten, 11
Awl, scratch, 78
Ball hammer, 13
Bessemer process, 65
Blast, control of, 27
Bolts, heading, 55
making of, 54
Bottom fuller, 17
Bottom swage, 16
Butt welding, 31
Candle-stick, making of, 104
Case hardening, 76
Cementation process, 66
Center punch, use of, 13
Chain links, welding of, 48
Chisels, hot and cold, 15
making of cold, 70
Coal, method of handling, 19
Cold Chisel, use of, 15
Coloring steel, 77
Crucible steel, making of, 66
Cupping tool, 55
Door knocker, making of, 110, 113
Door latch, making of, 99
Drawer pull, making of, 107
Expansion of iron, 59
Eye-pin, use of, 103
welding of, 43
Eyes, welding of hinge, 102
Fagot welding, 23, 37
File, used for inlaying, 128
Fire, making of forge, 18
cleaning of, 19
Fire shovel, making of, 97
Flatter, use of, 15
Fluting tool, 86
Flux and its uses, 21
Forge, the, 7
Forging a cold chisel, 70
Forming a loose eye, 40
Fuller, 16, 118
Gate hook, forging of, 55
Grab hook, making of, 52
Grilles, making of, 87, 91
Hammer, ball, 13
danger of, 25
proper way to hold, 27
round-faced modeling, 137
sledge, danger, 71
Hammock hook, making of, 41
Handle, twisted poker, 94
Hardening cold chisel, 72
Hat and coat hook, making of, 117
Hay hook, making of, 57
Heading tool, 15
Heating, method of, 22, 27
Hinge, making of, 101
Hot chisel, 15
Jump welding, 30, 120
Lamp, portable, making of, 139
wall, making of, 137
Lamp ceiling cap, 137
Lamp shade, making of, 143
Lantern, assembling, 133
fittings of, 135
making of, 130
Links, open, 47
Open hearth process, 65
Perforated decoration, 112
Pig iron, making of, 64
Punch block, 51
Punch, hand, 13, 79
used for inlaying, 127
Punching, method of, 50
Scarf, correct and incorrect, 26
theory of, 25
Scarfing, meaning of, 24
Scroll,, volute, 89
Separate heat weld, the, 24
Shovel handle, making of, 96
Shears, kinds of, 18
Snip shears, 131
Spring tempering, 74
Steel, annealing of, 77, 81
Bessemer process, 65
case hardening, 76
high speed, 80
Steel, making of, 65
open hearth process, 65
temper colors of, 68
tempering of, 67, 75
welding of, 76
Stock, storage of, 17
Swage block, 17
Tempering thin steel, 75
Toasting fork, making of, 124
Tongs, danger in-handling, 15
making of, 60
INDEX — Continued
Tools, anvil, 13
center punch, 79
fuller, for deepening lines, 16, 118
hand punch, for heavy punching, 79
punch for inlaying, 127
punch block, for cutting holes, 51
round-faced hammer, 137
snip shears, 131
Tongs, danger in handling, 15
Top fuller, 16
Top swage, 16
Volute scroll, making of, 89
Wall hook, making of, 122
Welding, bolt heads, 54
chain links, 48
corner, 34, 36
fagot, 23, 37
heat, determining, 28
jump, 30, 120
making the, 27
method of, 20
oxy-acetylene gas, 23
ring, 39, 57
separate heat, 24
Wrought iron, finish of, 42
manufacture of, 64
Wrought iron leaf, making of, 85
Wrought iron work, 83